Saturday, January 25, 2020

Profile of a Hate Crime Offender Essay example -- Papers

Profile of a Hate Crime Offender Sterilized from emotion, hate crime, also called bias crime, is those offenses motivated in part or singularly by personal prejudice against other because of a diversity-race, sexual orientation, religion, ethnicity/national origin, or disability. Hate crimes are committed out of anger, ignorance, and lack of knowledge of another’s ideas and beliefs. There are many causes for an individual to commit a hate crime. Also, many different profiles fit the description of a hate crime offender. There are ways to prevent and control hate crimes, but they will always be present in society as long as every person has the right to express his or her opinion. The term hate crime first appeared in the late 1980’s as a way of understanding a racial incident in the Howard Beach section of New York City, in which a black man was killed while attempting to evade a violent mob of white teenagers, shouting racial epithets. Although widely used by the federal government of the United States, the media, and researchers in the field, the term is somewhat misleading because it suggests incorrectly that hatred is invariably a distinguishing characteristic of this type of crime. While it is true that many hate crimes involve intense animosity toward the victim, many others do not. Conversely, many crimes involving hatred between the offender and the victim are not ‘hate crimes’ in the sense intended here. For example an assault that arises out of a dispute between two white, male co-workers who compete for a promotion might involve intense hatred, even though it is not based on any racial or religious differences... ...Violence on College Campuses," (Baltimore: National Institute Against Prejudice and Violence, 1990). Fox, James and Jack Levin Overkill: Mass Murder and Serial Killing Exposed (New York: Dell, 1996). Freeman, Steven, "Hate Crime Laws: Punishment Which Fits the Crime," Annual Survey of American Law (New York: New York University School of Law, 1993); pp. 581-585. Hamm, Mark S. Hate Crime: International Perspectives on Causes and Control (Anderson: Cincinnati, 1994). Jacobs, James B. and Jessica S. Henry, "The Social Construction of a Hate Crime Epidemic," The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology (Winter 1996); 366-391. Jacobs, James B. and Kimberly A. Potter "Hate Crimes: A Critical Perspective," Crime and Justice: A Review of Research, Ed. Michael Tonry (University of Chicago Press: Chicago, 1997).

Thursday, January 16, 2020

Concealment in the Twelfth Night

British Literature: Concealment in Twelfth Night Throughout Twelfth Night, concealment influences each character’s life because it’s essential to portray how falsehood can be amusing or agonizing before they can discover their identity in life. Therefore, the concept of concealment not only affects the characters’ mistaken identities and abilities to express true love, but it gives the story comedic and entertaining qualities.Furthermore, concealment portrayed throughout this story makes each character develop an identity with either showing cleverness or madness, while it also makes each character realize the principles towards obtaining love and truth. For instance, Viola's disguise as Cesario and Feste’s costume as Sir Topas shows that they are both clever and amusing which causes characters to experience deception and confusion until their identities are revealed.With this in mind, concealment not only deludes characters from reality, but it exposes th e abundance of true love among Viola, Orsino, Olivia, Sebastian, Maria and Sir Toby, which leads to three marriages within the story. Nevertheless, concealment causes the people to experience deceptions and illusions, but also provides humor concerning the morality of human behavior. Moreover, the first example of concealment during the Twelfth Night is Viola's disguise as Cesario.Viola’s concealment is central to the plot because it is clearly evident that the fluctuation in attitude to the dual role and the situations and tribulations imposed upon the character Viola/Cesario, ends up creating a better understanding of both sexes and thus, allows Viola to have a better understanding of Orsino. For instance, at the end of the story when Orsino finally realizes who Cesario is, he professes his love to Viola by saying: â€Å"When that is known, and golden time convents, A solemn combination shall be made Of our dear souls.Meantime, sweet sister, We will not part from hence. Ce sario, come- For so you shall be, while you are a man; But when in other habits you are seen, Orsino’s mistress and his fancy’s queen† (5. 1. 352-358). Consequently, Viola learns that in the role of Cesario, she had to be quick on her feet and defend the probing questions and statements as to her love and others love for her. Also, she acquired the skill to bide her time, until the time was right, in case she reveal her true self or intentions.The disguise also prevents Viola from expressing her love for Orsino, it contributes to the dramatic ironies by causing complications of mistaken identity. Moreover, Viola cannot show her love for Orsino, the only way she can express them is in her soliloquies to the reader, this contributes to the dramatic ironies. For example, when Viola conveys to Orsino what Olivia told her concerning love by saying: â€Å"A blank, my lord. She never told her love, But let concealment, like a worm i' the bud, Feed on her damask cheek. She pined in thought, And with a green and yellow melancholyShe sat like patience on a monument, Smiling at grief. Was not this love indeed? We men may say more, swear more, but indeed Our shows are more than will, for still we prove Much in our vows, but little in our love† (2. 4. 108-115). There are many examples of concealment concerning Viola alone, which enables her to work for Orsino as a messenger: it causes Olivia to fall in love with her and it causes both of them to disguise their feelings from each other until Orsino becomes aware that Cesario is Viola. Concealment also causes mistaken identity.For example, Sir Andrew goes looking for Cesario, strikes him, finds out later it is, Sebastian. Sebastian hits him in return, but sevenfold, and Sebastian having been in Illyria only a few days is proposed to by a beautiful lady and is hit by a man he had never seen before, † Why, there’s for thee, and there, and there! Are all the people mad? â€Å"(4. 1. 16-1 7). This is a funny series of events started by the disguise of one single woman. It is evident therefore, that the disguises of Viola / Cesario as an example are very important and central to the plot.Also, it portrays how some characters are deceived about their true nature. An example of this is when Orsino sees himself becoming Olivia’s sweet perfections, fulfilling her sexual desire, thought and feeling. He naively believes that he is in love with Olivia when he has never really spoken with her. Another example is Olivia adopting the pretence of mourning and the puritanical Malvolio is tricked into the role of Olivia's suitor and becomes a smiling courtier. As a result, oncealment contributes to most of the comedy because there is the occasion when Feste dresses up as Sir Topas and Sir Toby brings the joke to an end out of self interest than any concern for Malvolio.Feste uses a black parson's gown, which is, ironically, the color normally associated with Malvolio, who i n contrast is dressed in bright colors. This reversal provides a visible symbol of just how thoroughly his pride has been humiliated. Feste says, â€Å"There is no darkness but ignorance† and Malvolio's ignorance has been ruthlessly exposed, although he was ignorant to think that Olivia loved him in the first place (4. . 33). It is the verbal and character comedy of Sir Topas, showing how humor comes from the rapid switching of roles and, if rather uneasily, from the deception of Malvolio. There are also more subtle examples of concealment in the Twelfth Night, the nature of characters as well as their identities are disguised. In the letter to Malvolio, Sir Toby Belch disguises his real motives behind his show of friendship for Sir Andrew. Illyria could also be a disguised England, not many people had traveled in Shakespeare's day and so perhaps he made up Illyria to be a fantasy England.This place could be where all stereotypes of English people get up to a variety of thing s, creating familiar stereotypes in a slightly different setting. Perhaps also, Shakespeare wishes to show his audience how ready humans are to disguise themselves: Orsino and Olivia are both disguising their feelings, Malvolio's vanity and illusions about himself and his mistress help in his humiliation. The irony is that Orsino and Olivia are led to face reality by the characters Viola and Sebastian, who are at the center of the confusion over identity.Disguised characters were a stock convention of comedy, but Shakespeare uses the device to give it wider significance. The play makes us consider what our beliefs are about ourselves and others based upon. Therefore, in conclusion, it can be seen how very important and significant the theme of concealment is. Many forms of concealment featured in the play portray how  emotions and intentions are disguised behind an outer appearance, pretence or an attitude in which the characters possess within each situation.Concealment connects the story, the characters and the different scenes in the play. However, if there wasn’t concealment in the Twelfth Night, there wouldn’t be any humor reflecting the conflicts or problems, which influences the characters’ lives with understanding the truth about love and what causes illusion/deception.Bibliography Shakespeare, William. Twelfth Night. The Longman Anthology of British Literature. Ed. David Damrosch et al. 4th ed. New York: Longman, 2009. Vol. 1B. pp. 1217-1272.

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

Computational Modeling, An Artificial Intelligence...

1. Abstract: The Ccost estimate is important for projects throughout its life cycle, starting from feasibility studies till tendering stage and developing BOQ, it provides significant information that even may serve project budgeting and controlling if reliable. This paper presents a comparison between two cost estimate predictive modeling, an artificial intelligence approach using neural networks as non-parametric modeling; and multiplely regression modeling that represents advanced engineering statics - a parametric modeling. Results show that neural networks have advantages when dealing with data that for which there is little a priori knowledge of the appropriate cost estimate relationship to select for regression modeling. However, in cases where an appropriate CER can be identified, regression models have significant advantages in terms of accuracy, variability, model creation and model examination. Both simulated and actual data sets are used for comparison. Our research is applied for a specific package of construction projects (concrete work) based on 17 projects with a 115 records. Key words: construction projects, cost estimate. Concrete work, neural network, multiply regression. 2. Introduction: Cost estimate is the productive process used to quantify cost and price the resources to achieve project scope; the output can be used for many purposes throughout project life cycle such as: Determining the economic feasibilityShow MoreRelatedEssay On Object Detection9136 Words   |  37 Pages A Survey of Vision-Based Background Modeling and On-Road Object Detection Method XIREN MA, University of Ottawa Vision-based moving object detection has received a lot of attention in recent years. I proposed a categorization of moving object detection method based on the position of the camera, namely static methods and non-static methods. In this paper, I introduced the commonly used moving object detection methods for each category. For the static methods, the camera is placed at a certain