Saturday, August 31, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"Bad stress, good stressÃ¢â¬ In about 150 words The story is about stress. Stress has become a common word In the dally parlance, and that's makes the present people to think they have stress Just by going to the mall or to have a hard day at work. But In the past you got stress by going to war or by pushing yourself to get through the day. We hear about that the Government In 2004 announced that stress has cost the UK economy El 3. 5 billion, because of lost productivity and illness at work.Then we also hear about Dry Bond who means that people often says they are stressed, when the actually just are afraid of feeling afraid. But the good news is that it is possible to teach people to handle stress more effectively than it has been and the technique which comes from Clare Harris, a lecturer from the Praxis Centre for Developing Personal Effectiveness, can be adopted across the world. Give an outline for the various stress-related problems presented in the four texts. Test 1: Mind & Body this week: Danger: stress at work Stress Is related directly with the need to hide emotions at work.Stress also affects teachers, because It Is them who have to control the children In the school. A high emotion work experience more stress than others. The most stressed group Is them who are thinking negative thoughts about the past. Test 2: Bad stress, good stress The stress problem comes because people have made the word become a common world in the daily parlance. Stress can also be related to the feeling of being afraid. Another effect could be that people are doing some ridiculous things, like punching the wall, drinking or attacking other people they know are weak like them self.Test 3: Stress relief Stress can take different forms. It's not only the negative things in life, which can create stress. Being too busy can result in excessive surges of adrenaline In the body. To work too hard to get the chance to buy expensive thing, Is also a pressure. Test 4: Stres s can be good for you but not for long Even small things can affect the stress level, for example the torture of commuting, frustrations with computers freezing in the worst moments. But a study claims that stress isn't always bad for people.But permanent stress will be dangerous and it will effect the immune system also. Comment on the following statement: Ã¢â¬Å"If you want to live long and healthily, don't settle into routinesÃ¢â¬ Maybe the following statement means that routines can be bad for you, you might come In a bad routine, but not only that, but if you Just think in routines in general, then you might see that it is bad for you, because if you don't follow your routine, it might stress you or you even get in bad mood, because you feel that you are missing something.But when you think by living healthy Is can be both good and bad with routines, because maybe you have a DOD routine by going to the gym and eat healthy, then It's good for you, but at the other way, It als o might be bad, because It can also effect you If you one day don't have the time to go to the gym, then you might get In a bad mood or you can get In a bad routine and eat a lot of fat food and that can be very bad for you as well. Manage stress as a student.How to manage stress as a student? That's the question many people have these days. As a student you can some very stressed days, maybe you have to be in school until late afternoon, or maybe you have a part time Job side the school, or you are living alone or maybe you Just like spending time with your friends. All these factors can affect your stress level, but the way you can manage this, is by going to school, then making your homework, and Just take it easy.Friends can you later at the day or in the weekend. It's Just about taking it slow, do your thing in your own tempo and an important thing is priority. Most of it depends on how you priority your day and your things. Do the things that you and your body can manage, and don't go under for the pressure that can occur in your daily life. Fight for the things you want.
Friday, August 30, 2019
For the term Ã¢â¬Å"the business of bankingÃ¢â¬ , the statute definition is inadequately, even some statute laws can help with the understanding about Ã¢â¬Å"the business of bankingÃ¢â¬ but the definitions they are provided still not adequate (Waldeck & Giardina). Moreover, it become more difficult for defining Ã¢â¬Å"the business of bakingÃ¢â¬ today as the fact that over the years and bank services are more diversified (Waldeck & Giardina). The case law Australian Independent Distributors Ltd v Winter (1965) 122 CLR 443 the Adelaide Cooperative Society accepted the money deposits from their members and recorded it on the passbook (Tyree 2008). The court held that the society had not carrying on the Ã¢â¬Å"business of bankingÃ¢â¬ due to the society lacked of the power to lend money Ã¢â¬â the one of the Ã¢â¬Ëessential characteristicÃ¢â¬â¢ (Tyree 2008). However, there was a later reinforced in the judgement for the case Commercial Banking Co of Sydney Ltd v RH Brown & Co and the Ã¢â¬ËHigh Court held that the main business of bank should be that of the lending of money (Waldeck & Giardina). The s 5(1) of the Banking Act 1959 (Cth) shows the precise definition of Ã¢â¬Å"the business of bankingÃ¢â¬ and the part (b)(i) said Ã¢â¬Ëa business that is carried on by a corporation to which paragraph 51(xx) of the Constitution applies and that consists, to any extent, of both taking money on deposit (otherwise than s part-payment for identified goods or services) and making advance of moneyÃ¢â¬â¢ which the definition was adapted straightforwardly by the High Court in Commissioners of the State Savings Bank of Victoria v Permewan Wright & Co Ltd (1914) 19 CLR 457 (Tyree 2008). However, the Victorian Court for the case R v Jost  VSCA 198] held the Act merely restated the previous definition that developed by the courts (Tyree 2008). Furthermore, whether the characteristics are considered as essential or as usual, there are some doubts for the institution authorised to carry on the business of banking under the Banking Act would be considered a bank for all purposes (Tyree 2008). In Commercial Banking Co v Hartigan (1952) 86 ILT 109, the organisation was held to be a bank even they failed the Kirkwood test due to they compliance with the Irish Central Bank Act 1942 and was licensed under the Act. However, in PP Consultants Pty Ltd v Fiance Sector Union  HCA 59, the High Court found that the pharmacist acting as an Ã¢â¬ËagencyÃ¢â¬â¢ bank and not carrying on the business of banking and held that carry on the business of a banking agent (Tyree 2008). In conclusion, statute definition, Banking Act definition and some case law are interpreting the term Ã¢â¬Å"the business of bankingÃ¢â¬ but no one could be identified adequately. Due to the fact that over years, the definition keeps improving and become more diversified which is the reason that difficult to identified and no definition could give the adequate definition. The MacMillan and Greenwood duties are imposed on customers. Briefly explain these duties and what if any other duties have been sought to be imposed on customers. In general, the MacMillan and Greenwood are two fundamental contractual obligations owed by customer and their name is comes from the name of the relevant case (Tyree 2008). The original case of MacMillan is London Joint Stock Bank Ltd v MacMillan and Arthur  AC 777. In this case, the House of Lords had to decide whether the customer owed a duty of care to the bank in the drawing of cheques. In this case, the company sued the bank breach of contract because the mistake made by careless confidential clerk of the firm. The bank paid only 120 pounds whereas the 2 pounds original payment and the firm won the case at the end. However, House of Lords took the chance to clarify the contract between firm and bank, the bank held that the customer owed the bank a duty to exercise care in the drawing of cheques and that the alteration of the cheque was, in this situation, the result is customer has breach of that duties (Tyree 2008). The Greenwood duty which from the case Greenwood v Martin Bank Ltd  AC 51 mention that the plaintiffÃ¢â¬â¢s wife had forged a series of cheques on his account. When he found the forgeries, he threaten notify the bank immediately. However, his wife explained she just uses those money to help her sister in legal action and in second time, he discovered that his wife still forged cheque from his account and he threatens to notify the bank. Then, his wife committed to suicide. He brought the action to prevent the bank from maintaining the debit to the account for the amount of the forged cheques, the court held that had been breach of duty by he failing to notify the bank about the forged event immediately. In conclusion, this case is notify bank of any forgeries on the account known to the customer (no require to seek out), there are also two extensions for any unauthorized transactions and withdrawals (Tyree 2008). Furthermore, some further duties have been sought to be imposed on customer in order to protecting the bankÃ¢â¬â¢s interests. The additional duties could be classified into three categories and those duties have been the subject of recent case law (Tyree 2008). Ã¢â¬Å"The passbook has been replaced by the bank statement which is sent at intervals to the customer and the current practice seems to favour the customer even more since there is no way for knowing whether the customer has even received the statement (Tyree 2008). Ã¢â¬ Kepitigalla was approved by the New Zealand Court of Appeal in National Bank of New Zealand Ltd v Walpole and Patterson Ltd  2 NZLR 7 and the Privy Council in Tai Hing Cotton Mill Ltd v Liu Chong Hing Bank Ltd  AC 80 (Tyree 2008).
Thursday, August 29, 2019
The block chains are the distributed databases maintaining continuous growth of records ordered in lists called Ã¢â¬Å"blocksÃ¢â¬ .Ã It is the public ledger of every Bitcoin transactions which have been executed. The pletedÃ¢â¬ blocks are incorporated to it leading to constant increase in size of the Ã¢â¬Å"block chainsÃ¢â¬ . These blocks have been imposed over the blockchain in chronological order and linear manner. The research would be conducted around Ã¢â¬Å"BitcoinsÃ¢â¬ . The Ã¢â¬Å"bitcoinsÃ¢â¬ has been developed as rewards in petitions where users offer power of puting to authenticate and record transfer of data into block-chains. The study would not reveal any other cases supported by the block-chains like smart contracts and the licensing. The study would describe the research. Then the evaluation of the contribution of block-chains with Ã¢â¬Å"bitcoinsÃ¢â¬ has been discussed.Ã A model to stimulate has been developed with its limitations and justifications. Lastly conclusion has been drawn on the key findings fitting to the research. At first the topic Ã¢â¬Å"blockchain technologyÃ¢â¬ in Ã¢â¬Å"BitcoinÃ¢â¬ is defined. Then the area of Ã¢â¬Å"blockchain technologyÃ¢â¬ in Ã¢â¬Å"BitcoinÃ¢â¬ is unfolded. The areas that are not to be included in this research are mentioned. Lastly the general findings from Ã¢â¬Å"blockchain technologyÃ¢â¬ in Ã¢â¬Å"BitcoinÃ¢â¬ are revealed. In the next section, the fiend of the review has been described. After describing the research, evaluation is done on the contribution of the research that has been done to the area. Next the limitations of Ã¢â¬Å"blockchain technologyÃ¢â¬ in Ã¢â¬Å"BitcoinÃ¢â¬ are shown. Lastly the section ends by mentioning the values of the limitations in the project. Then the best solution for the present situation is given. It important features are discussed. Its quality and contribution to the given research field is analyzed. A model is drawn stimulating it. Lastly conclusion is drawn upon the key findings from the review of Ã¢â¬Å" blockchain technologyÃ¢â¬ in Ã¢â¬Å"BitcoinÃ¢â¬ . Boyd &Carr, (2016) researched that Ã¢â¬Å"BlockchainÃ¢â¬ is the decentralized method for data transaction in Ã¢â¬Å"data managementÃ¢â¬ . It was first designed for the Ã¢â¬Å"Bitcoin cryptocurrencyÃ¢â¬ . The interest in this field originated since the idea has been coined in the year of 2008. The reason behind this was its core attributes providing data integrity, anonymity and security. This has been done in the absence of a third party organization that could manage its transactions. Thus it created attractive areas of research. This has been especially from the view point of limitations and technical challenges. A systematic mapping of the study with the aim of gathering every relevant research on the technology of lock-chain is set. The main aim has been the understanding of the present challenges, future directions and topics of the research. Various online journals are studies. That show focus on the Ã¢â¬Å"BitcoinÃ¢â¬ systems. Most of the studies has been dealing wit h reveal and improve of the Ã¢â¬Å"BlockchainsÃ¢â¬ from the security and privacy view-points. Several of the proposed solutions have been lacking concrete discussion on the effectiveness.Ã Many scalability of Block-chain involving the latency and throughput has been kept unstudied. Evaluation of the contribution of the research:The contribution of the research has been interesting to watch where it has been heading. Bitcoin has got many attentions in cryptocurrency. According to GÃ ¶bel et al. (2016) more people has been buying and trading Bitcoins per day. Hence it has been crucial as a research topic. The research would attract the academia and industries to carry on further researches from both the technical and business perspectives. The Bitcoin has been the only solution to utilize the Ã¢â¬Å"BlockchainÃ¢â¬ technology. There has been various other cryptocurrencies currently who have been giving petition to Bitcoin. The future researches from this study might also involve other cryptocurrencies. The review would not only help in focusing on Bitcoin and the other cryptocurrencies but also highlight applications possible utilizing the solution of blockchain. Utilizing of decentralized scenario like the share of virtual properties could be a contribution o f the research. This would revolutionize the approach in which the organizations would sell the products. Gipp, Kosti&Breitinger (2016) states that as the solutions of blockchain are used for more users, it would appreciate the reviews like this done on the technical challenges and limitations. The increase in sizes and bases of users has triggered to conduct this type of researches relating to the scalability. Moreover, the research will leave its impact on the privacy and security concerns. This would give birth to inventions of new areas to prevent the disturbance on blockchains. Limitations of the research:The systematic mapping of the research would enable the understanding of the present gaps in the research. Crosby et al., (2016) state thatone of the fundamental limitations on the study is relating to the publication bias. It refers that the problem that the positive ou es are to be published more than that of the negative ones. This is because that the negative take much time to get published. Moreover, they have been less cited in the publications. Other limitation has been the Ã¢â¬Å"selection biasÃ¢â¬ . It refers to the distortion of the statistical analysis. This has been owing to the used criteria for selecting the publications. Lastly the there has been limitation regarding inaccuracy the extraction of data and the misclassification. This indicates the possibility of extraction of data differently by various reviewers. Importance of the research gaps in the project:As researched by Zheng et al., (2016) this identification of systematic mapping of the research would help the practitioners and the researchers to concentrate on research areas that need more researches. The seeking of the gaps of research would reply the unanswered queries in the present technology of blockchain. The addressing of the publication issue has brought the usage of various scientific databases. This is done within the Ã¢â¬Å"search protocolsÃ¢â¬ to seek maximum number of papers. This has raised the quantity of papers found for this study along with raising the possibility to seek the papers with negative ou es. Nonetheless, the Blockchain innovation has been considered as another subject in the software engineering industry. It has been further distributed as white papers inside the panies. Thus, all exploration led on the specialized perspectives on Blockchain could not been incorporated in this mapping study. In any ca se, by using just logical databases as hotspots for finding significant research, papers are gathered of higher quality. The issue of selection bias has been addressed by the developing o careful search protocols. Pilot searches could be done on various keywords ensuring what has been concluded from the study. Rigorous criteria for inclusion and the exclusion could be defined form this. This would ensure that every paper elected has been the section of the research topic (Bracamonte, Yamasaki & Okada, 2016). Most of the researches relating to the block-chain have been relevant to the regulation, legal and economic factors of Bitcoin with the possibility of its cryptocurrency. The solution is the Ã¢â¬Å"data extractionÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"mapping processÃ¢â¬ . Matzuttet al., (2016) claimed is designed to gather data required to address the queries of research in this review. The data items collected are the basic information regarding the study. It includes the objectives and major findings from the study. It helps to organize and assess the data. The selection and search ou es are found from the process. There has been the Ã¢â¬Å"Prisma-FlowÃ¢â¬ model provided with the process. Many journals have been retrieved initially as the search protocol designed has been registered to the scientific databases selected. The initial round on the inclusion and the exclusion has been lying on the basis of the titles of the papers retrieved. Various papers excluded have been discussed from the business view-point of Bitcoin. They have not been included in the study. Retrieval of numerous papers relevant to other scientific fields where the Blockchain has another defi nition than technology in puter science is done. The most important features have been the identification of security, wasted resources, usability and privacy. These have been good due to the identification of exchanging property of Bitcoin. This has caused economic harm for the clients. This fit into the research was said by Karame (2016). This is because there is a scope of introducing the Ã¢â¬Å"audit softwareÃ¢â¬ to increase the usability in the Bitcoin exchanges. The aim of this software has been to deduce the solvency of exchange participants. This could be done without the publication of crucial data. There has been connection between the buyer and the seller with limited layer for anonymity. This prevents the buyers to find and validate data in Bitcoin. Different models could be presented through which the rating or reputation could be imposed conjoining the transactions of Bitcon. This considers every pros and cons. These aspects could be improved. This could be done on the network of Bitcoin. Thus the usability is improved delivering extra data for users who have been making transactions. Limitations:Colombo (2016) argues that the technology of block-chain has certain challenges that are identified through the review. Several technical limitations identified in adapting the technology of block-chain in future are throughput, latency, bandwidth and size, security, wasted resources, usability and versioning with hard forks and multiple chains. They have been the limitations for certain reasons. The potential issues throughput in the network of Bitcoin presently gets maximized to transactions per second. In order to develop enough protection for the transaction block of Bitcoin, it takes 10 minutes to finish a transaction roughly. In order to gain security efficiency, more time has to be spent in the blocks. This is because it has been outweighing the expense of couple of attacks. Currently the block-chainÃ¢â¬â¢s size in the network of Bitcoin has been over five hundred thousand megabytes. The munity of Bitcoin assumes that the quantity of each block has been one mega bytes. The block has been created for every ten minutes. Dwyer (2016) discusses that this causes limitations in the quantity of transactions to be handled. In the security section the present block-chain at Bitcoin can have 51% attack. The mining at Bitcoin has been wasting large quantity of energy about fifteen million dollars per day. This has been the reason of effort of Ã¢â¬Å"proof-of-workÃ¢â¬ . The API of Bitcoin to develop services has been hard to use. There has been the requirement to design an API for blockchain that is more developer-friendly. This resembles the REST APIs many times. Small chains that prises of lower quantity of nodes possess high chances of fifty-one percent attack. Another problem arises as the chains have been split for versioning and administrative purposes (Krug & Peterson, 2015). These limitations fit to the review as the blockchain posses the ability to alter the method of transactions. Moreover, the block-chainÃ¢â¬â¢s applications have not been limited to the crypto currencies. The data integrity attributes of security and the anonymity has been suffering from various restrictions and obstacles. They are assesses and resolved in this research. Scalability has been another problem which has been also mentioned in this study. This research would help in identifying the present status done by blockchain. The research has continued to seek several problems and solutions to ove e the limitations of the technology of Block-chain. Most of the study has concentrated on addressing the challenges. Every block prises of a timestamp. It prises of links to previous blocks. As recorded once, the block-chains have been resistant inherently to any kind of modification of data. Maximum researches on block-chain of present day have been concerned about the security and privacy issues.Ã It has conducted scalability problems on the Blockchain. The review has evaluated the ability of the solutions suggested in an aim of the evaluation criteria. The limitations are searched and the way it has been valuable to the project is found out. A suitable model is drawn justifying the best solution selected. Though various solutions to the limitations and solutions are presented but few of them has been just small proposals and lack strong assessment on the effectiveness. Boyd, C., &Carr, C. (2016, July). Fair Client Puzzles from the Bitcoin Blockchain. InÃ Australasian Conference on Information Security and PrivacyÃ (pp. 161-177). Springer International Publishing. Bracamonte, V., Yamasaki, S., & Okada, H. (2016). A Discussion of Issues related to Electronic Voting Systems based on Blockchain Technology. Colombo, R. J. (2016). Bitcoin: Hype or Harbinger.Ã J. Int'l Bus. & L.,Ã 16, 1. Crosby, M., Pattanayak, P., Verma, S., &Kalyanaraman, V. (2016). Blockchain technology: Beyond bitcoin.Ã Applied Innovation,Ã 2, 6-10. Dwyer, G. P. (2016). Blockchain: A Primer. English, S. M., &Nezhadian, E. (2017). Conditions of Full Disclosure: The Blockchain Remuneration Model.Ã arXiv preprint arXiv:1703.04196. Ferrin, D. (2015). A Preliminary Field Guide for Bitcoin Transaction Patterns. InÃ Proc. Texas Bitcoin Conf. Gipp, B., Kosti, J., &Breitinger, C. (2016). Securing Video Integrity Using Decentralized Trusted Timestamping on the Bitcoin Blockchain. GÃ ¶bel, J., Keeler, H. P., Krzesinski, A. E., & Taylor, P. G. (2016). Bitcoin blockchain dynamics: The selfish-mine strategy in the presence of propagation delay.Ã Performance Evaluation,Ã 104, 23-41. Hari, A., & Lakshman, T. V. (2016, November). The Internet Blockchain: A Distributed, Tamper-Resistant Transaction Framework for the Internet. InÃ Proceedings of the 15th ACM Workshop on Hot Topics in NetworksÃ (pp. 204-210). ACM. Karame, G. (2016, October). On the Security and Scalability of Bitcoin's Blockchain. InÃ Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGSAC Conference on puter and munications SecurityÃ (pp. 1861-1862). ACM. Krug, J., & Peterson, J. (2015). Sidecoin: a snapshot mechanism for bootstrapping a blockchain.Ã arXiv preprint arXiv:1501.01039. Matzutt, R., Hohlfeld, O., Henze, M., Rawiel, R., Ziegeldorf, J. H., &Wehrle, K. (2016, October). POSTER: I Don't Want That Content! On the Risks of Exploiting Bitcoin's Blockchain as a Content Store. InÃ Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGSAC Conference on puter and munications SecurityÃ (pp. 1769-1771). ACM. Miscione, G., & Kavanagh, D. (2015). Bitcoin and the Blockchain: A Coup D'Ãâ°tat through Digital Heterotopia?. Nugent, T., Upton, D., &Cimpoesu, M. (2016). Improving data transparency in clinical trials using blockchain smart contracts [version 1; referees: awaiting peer review]. Zheng, Z., Xie, S., Dai, H. N., & Wang, H. (2016). Blockchain Challenges and Opportunities: A Survey.
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
The importance of coordination and cooperation among all levels of government - Research Paper Example In many cases, it is often hard and difficult working in a system that does not have proper systems and mechanisms for effective coordination. In this kind of set up, many complains often arise from people meant to enjoy services from them; this is because, they end up having a lot of inefficiencies. This paper examine s the essence of effective in the American government during times of emergency like Hurricane Katrina, outlining the importance of various management control systems used during the catastrophe. According to federal law, coordination is a process, which requires that all the federal agencies to effectively coordinate the respective plans, programs as well as management activities with the local governments. Coordination itself is a very strong and powerful tool that is often employed in order to offer essential services to the populace, protect their property rights, utilize essential resources and other services that the government is mandated to offer to its people (Haddow, Bullock & Coppola 2014). The process of coordination has often worked effectively in the past since most federal agencies are particularly directed by the Congress in the process of working with the local governments (Haddow, Bullock & Coppola 2014). In the past, coordination has proved effective in the process of implementing special policies that have had greater impacts on the local residents. It is important to note that federal governments cannot easily decide to walk out of it, however, it is sometimes least enforced since some local governments do not have its full awareness and have not been effectively trained on how to implement it. Various incidences that have happened in the United States, have illustrated how coordination in the government has been helpful towards effective management of this catastrophes (Allen & Beech 2013). One of the incidences that received a greater amount of effective government coordination was the Hurricane
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
The Spinster - Essay Example She added to her stock a female swine which she tended till it was old enough to breed. She was so glad that the swine had sixteen breast nipples because these would indicate it can have many piglets. She had her artificially inseminated. She must not have imagined a boar over her beast! Alter ego! After few months the beast delivered seven piglets. She was so glad tending the young ones and hoping to sell them at a better price soon. What a profit! Unfortunately, one morning while she was busy tending on her pregnant cattle, a mad dog drop by and bit three of the piglets. Eventually, all the piglets including the mother swine went crazy. It was so horrible for her that at the blink of an eye her capital went crazy and eventually underground with the dead. But, she did not despair. She still has her chicken and almost skinny, but pregnant cattle. Surely, the cattle delivered another female after a long wait. It certainly meant profit! Happily she goes to fields with plenty of free grass feed for her cattle' every morning, leave them to fodder till the late afternoons, when she brings them back home and give some water with little salt. One morning when she was ready to tow the cattle for fodder, the cattle just went crazily jumping around and around that sh
Monday, August 26, 2019
Art and cinema - Assignment Example They seem to be at peace with themselves and those around them. The disruption in narrative convention is apparent in the manÃ¢â¬â¢s time-space travel, where nothing is lasting and completely certain. The man and woman are as temporary as the dead animals they are gazing at. The parallel scene with Twelve Monkeys is the scene where the animals run free and James Cole (Bruce Willis) and Kathryn Railly (Madeleine Stowe) see the animals for the first time. See Figure 2. James and Kathryn are in mid cut away shot at eye level. The impact of them together and the animals running free is the perceptions that they are not free compared to the animals. Like the animals, as in La JetÃ ©e, the only time they can assuredly have is the present. The future is unreliable in giving happiness for it may even lead to their separation or death. The narrative is disrupted by the constant reference to lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s temporariness. In the clip from GodardÃ¢â¬â¢s Band of Outsiders, Odile (Anna) Karina recites from Ã¢â¬Å"Les PoÃ ¨tesÃ¢â¬ by Louis Aragon. Odile is represented in a different light from the woman in La JetÃ ©e because the former is darker and less hopeful of the future. In this scene, Odile looks forlorn, as she says: Ã¢â¬Å"All theyÃ¢â¬â¢d ask for was a light. They settled for so little. They had so little anger in them.Ã¢â¬ The sad tone of her voice and poem suggests that she is unhappy and she longs for something better in the future that she cannot enjoy at present. She is different from the woman in La JetÃ ©e who no longer questions the comings and goings of the man. She just enjoys every moment they have. Odile is similar with the woman though because she also strives to be happy. She is unsure how, but she does want to have true happiness in her life. In the essay, Ã¢â¬Å"On Photography,Ã¢â¬ Susan Sontag explores the meaning of photography, based on its uses and impacts on human behaviors. She argues that photography is a process of collecting
Sunday, August 25, 2019
LLM Application - Essay Example The company I work for operates and owns mining of coal and transportation infrastructure in Colombia. As pertains to my academic qualifications, I pursued my high school education at Helevetia School in Bogoto, Colombia between the years 1985 and 1999. I graduated with French baccalaureate and a Colombian bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degree. Thereafter, I joined Javeriana University where I studied graduate attorney studies between the years 1999 and 2004. In the year 2005, I went to McGill University in Canada where I had my postgraduate studies and attained proficiency in Business Law and English. In 2007, I graduated from Andes University in Colombia with a postgraduate studies in Colombian Business law. I latter went to Javeriana University where I pursued Labor and Social Security Law. I graduated with a master in labor Attorney. As a result of my diversification in areas of education, I can conveniently converse in Spanish. Moreover, being a Swiss national, I can competently converse in French and also converse in English as a fluent second language. With regard to my professional qualifications, I worked at Brigard & Urrutia Abogados in Colombia between April 2006 and July 2007. It is a law firm that specializes in labor and business law and has a repute of satisfaction of its customers due to provision of high quality legal services. I reported to a taxes manager and held the position of labor and Immigrant attorney. In my capacity, I was responsible for advising foreigners on legal issues in Colombia. I was also involved with the human resource issues and aided in advising the clients about their immigration policies. I was also involved in the administration capacity as pertained to remuneration and compensation, labor proceedings, and immigration proceedings. I also executed settlement agreements between the clients we served. During my practicing in this law firm, I was able to reorganize and manage immigration and human resource areas. Thereafter, I worked a t Posse, Herrera, Ruiz & Abogados between July 2007 and June 2008, a company that had a larger base of services; tax planning, litigation both local and international, acquisitions and mergers, and labor and immigration law. I was responsible for labor and immigration Attorney issues at social security, labor and immigration. I also gave legal insights into human resource issues and was able to achieve the opening of immigration and labor area of practice. Between January 2009 and May 2010, I held the position of Attorney in charge of labor relations area and worked at ING Pension and Severance Fund Inc where I reported to the human resource manager. My responsibilities were similar to those carried out in my previous capacities hence making me more competent in the performance of my activities. In addition to then, I was also able to provide legal advice to the foreigners, handled disciplinary proceedings of the firm and management functions. I was able to achieve as pertained to c ontrolling trade unions and aided in channeling complaints of workers through working with labor relations. It is with view of my interest in labor and social security law that I desire to pursue a LL.M program at your institution. This is as a result of the globalism of legal policies and legal practices. The global community of lawyers calls for the need of lawyers to comprehend legal issues that are beyond their scope. The learning of LL.M will enable me to be better equipped to not only serve that legal society with my vast knowledge, but to also serve the community. This is since I will be more prepared and equipped to face the changing law world and the increasing requirements by the society for a knowledgeable lawyer. Moreover, having help
Oral Language - Essay Example Spoken language is essential for the onset of thoughtfulness. Once familiarity is developed with the listening and speaking skills it enables the development of writing and reading skills. Playing games with the kids, talking with them, spinning a tale, involving them through the mysteries of stuffed animals, narrating stories with props, spiritual chants, songs, puppets, playing interactive computer games, drawing and colouring facilitate them to construct an approachable and communicative language. Such activities stimulate the brain and aids in building vocabulary on one hand, while on the other these actions train the children to become accustomed with the oral language (Oral Language Activities that Develop Reading Readiness). Further, enables the child to develop fine as well as gross motor skills. With the advent of science and technology, various audio visual aids are available encompassing songs and rhymes that are directed to develop the understanding towards the surroundin gs, about self and body parts, about weather, clothes, shelters, pets, time, good habits, actions and keep the children involved in a complete manner. These activities play vital role in the cognitive development of the child right from the birth (Songs for Teaching). A constructive interaction always encourages the child, at the same time it is essential to put off falter and pauses for the growing personality. Early speech development allows the child to articulate and build communication with everyone around. This gives support in mastering other skills like writing, reading and understanding at much faster pace (Small, 2011). Understanding the requirement of the child as per age enhances the speech development. For instance- From Birth to Age of two- The care giver should talk a lot with the baby belonging to this particular age group. Babies at this age start recognizing the sounds, gesture and they start with the mono-syllable words, they try to identify the jargons, songs and rhymes encompassing actions and movements, gesture empowers their grasping. On the other hand, at the age of two to four grasping improves and therefore words should be spoken with care so that the appropriate vocabulary is framed. Use of abusive language in front of the child puts a wrong perception in the development. Age four to six, the school age, requires constant motivation and admiration for the good deeds performed or for the small achievements. Initiating expansion of vocabulary enables greater command over the language at the early stage of development, while at seven to eight years, the child understands the world around and should always be encouraged to ask and express what they perceive, enhancing the development of understanding the world in a better way and safeguarding self from any kind of mishaps or abuses (Small, 2011). Oral language is the most imperative part of the child's cognitive development, as it is the only means that aid in conveying wishes and knowle dge. Oral language is the vital characteristic of language as it paves the way for literacy proficiency. Significance Oral language becomes a contributing factor in the academic success. According to Rhode Island Department of Education, "At middle school, student who had poor oral language skills in kindergarten lag five years behind their peers who had strong oral language skills in kindergarten." Oral language plays an important role in generating phonological responsiveness of words, followed by
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Non-Human Animals - Term Paper Example He finishes it off with the fact that nonhuman wildlife can be regarded as no more than machineries with chunks brought together in complex ways. Centered on DescartesÃ¢â¬â¢ underlying principle, human beings have a very little accountability to other natures or the natural world, unless their behavior has an emotional impact on other humans. (Hergenhahn, 2005, pp. 164). Rene Descartes, seemingly believed that wildlife were, as a matter of fact, vague from nonliving objects in that animals were not emotional Ã¢â¬âthey were purely not creatures who were sensible, had individual and perceptual mindfulness, or were able to suffer pain and misery. As a consequence, they were not animations who had happiness; that is, they did not have favorites, needs, or wishes (Wilsher, 2010). La Mettrie suspected DescartesÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts on God were a veil for his true feelings and to keep himself safe from persecution. In actuality, La Mettrie was of the opinion that Descartes believed humans to be automated like machines and all other non-human creatures (including animals). Descartes presented his thoughts on God and soul as such that they would match with the thoughts of the clergy. He did this mainly to be accepted by the clergy, because otherwise, he would have to face persecution in the case of differing from their thoughts. La Mettrie on the other hand, realized DescartesÃ¢â¬â¢s quandary, and knew that he thought humans to have no soul, and were in fact machines. Hence, La Mettrie was of the opinion that Descartes was more of a mechanist, even when it came to the theory of humans. (Shank, 2002, P. 75). La Mettrie on the contrary had a different view on humans. He thought that every being consisted of matter and no other substance, like humans; hence he was considered a physical monist. But La Mettrie was not a physician; he was only a philosopher, so his thoughts and his studies can only be backed by his philosophical background. For La Mettrie, the thought of humans or any other creature having an immaterial soul was bizarre. (La Mettrie, 1996) So to be sure of this concept, the argument would have to be backed by both fields, i.e. philosophy and physician. La MettrieÃ¢â¬â¢s argument hence, would prove to be weak in front of DescartesÃ¢â¬â¢s argument, because DescartesÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts were supported by evidence from philosophical and physicist backgrounds. There is evidence, however, of mental states like the soul, depending on physical aspects of humans. If someone accepts this fact then they would be accepting dualism, i.e. the belief of mental aspects depending on non-mental aspects. However, by the end of his life Descartes accepted that animals can suffer bodily pains. The next important fact of difference Descartes had with the Scholastics was his rejection of the theory that all facts must come from feeling. The Scholastics were dedicated to the Aristotelian principle that everybody is born with a spotless slate, and all tha t intellect material must be felt. Descartes, nonetheless, reasoned that as the senses occasionally trick, they cannot be a reliable basis for understanding. What's more, the fact of plans based on feeling is unsurprisingly problematic and the proposals, consequently, are undecided evidences when used in wiles. Descartes was profoundly displeased with such uncertain
Friday, August 23, 2019
How the media programs present important political issues - Essay Example Through the media networking capabilities, new information can rapidly be disseminated through the broadcasts as compared to the traditional mass media. These shows allow particularly politicians to develop individualized and personalized campaigns, of which are more or less detached from the partyÃ¢â¬â¢s campaign.They also allow candidates and their political parties to inform citizens directly unlike the past when they used to be the agency to critique, mediate, and interpret on their behalf. Although many citizens have access to radio and T.V, many use them for entertainment purposes. Even if they listen or watch these shows, they tend to already have an initial interest in politics, the politician or the party. These therefore make the programs to get interrupted to satisfy these needs by following these shows with entertainment and social utility programs. In a bout of these shows from the different media outlets, the popular topics of discussion within the politics field include areas such as the Congress, election issues, presidential job approvals, taxes, political parties, moral issues and favorability and very little will be discussed about the economic status of the country even though this is the major concern amongst viewers and listeners. A major study conducted by Joan Shorenstein Center on Press, public policy and Politics found that the level of peoples knowledge about candidates position rose and fell later was based on the degree at which these media shows covered important issues .
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Eco 365 Supply and Demand Essay The supply and demand simulation shows different aspects of economic structures. Although mostly focused on microeconomics, the simulation does show a small role of macroeconomics. The principles of microeconomics would apply to drop in rent prices to increase the supply being demanded. Another microeconomic principle shown in the simulation is the rise in demand when the cost of rent is lowered. Macroeconomics principles came into play when the rise in demand for apartment was a direct product of the establishment of a new company in town. Same principles of microeconomics apply to an excess supply created by a price ceiling enforced by the government. Supply and Demand Shifts A shift in the demand curve was created when the new company brought an increase in population to Atlantis. A greater amount of people created a greater demand for the apartments. Equilibrium is reached in the demand shift by raising the price of rent to decrease demand. A supply shift was created when 400 apartments were converted into condominiums, which in turn caused a drop in supply. The equilibrium would be fixed by raising the cost to lower the demand because of a decrease in supply. Real World Application With the nutritional corporations expanding and health awareness on the rise prices of nutritional supplements are rising to meet the demand. Especially in local areas, there arenÃ¢â¬â¢t too many health and wellness shops that offer the best available supplements or expert advice, therefore the few local shops in town can raise the prices of their products because of high demand and low supply. Microeconomics: Supply/Demand Shifts A sudden increase in population can cause a demand shift which would either cause you to increase or decrease price reach equilibrium and maximize revenue. Supply shifts are caused by eliminating or adding supply to an economy to meet the choices of the population. Macroeconomics: Supply/Demand Shifts An increase in wages from neighboring business may cause a demand shift. This would cause a company to make changes to their prices to try to reach another target or meet the needs of the current target. A shift in supply because of macroeconomics can be caused by price ceilings or floors that would lead to a surplus or shortage of supply. Pricing Strategy Price elasticity of demand will always change the pricing strategy of a company so that they can maximize revenue, not demand. If a company figures they have low demand for their products they may lower the price so that more people become interested and vise-versa. The price elasticity is the equal to the percent change of quantity demand times the percent change in price. Price elasticity is used to figure the change in demand after a change in price (Colander, 2010). PEoD = (% Change in Quantity Demanded)/(% Change in Price) When the price of causes a change in the demand the formula will recognize that change and give you an indication of delicate that products demand is to a change in price. The higher the result equals higher sensitivity to price change (Moffatt, 2013). References Colander, D. C. (2010). Economics (8th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Moffatt, M. (2013). Price Elasticity of Demand. Retrieved from http://economics.about.com/cs/micfrohelp/a/priceelasticity.htm
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
English Discussion Question Essay Irony plays a major part in Raymond CarverÃ¢â¬â¢s Popular Mechanics. As the man tries to seize the infant from her, the woman accuses him of hurting the baby. The irony is that she, too, hurts the baby. In fact, both of them are hurting the baby. Both of them want the best for their child, but they are unconscious that the effect of their separation will greatly affect the kid. Like in many broken families, the child suffers the most. Another irony in the story is that the couple wants to part ways. However, as they fight over the baby, nobody wants to give in. It is as if they are using the baby as an excuse to keep the separation at bay and waiting for anything that may change the break up to happen. Deep in their hearts, they donÃ¢â¬â¢t really want to separate after all. Compared to other stories with conventional style, the Popular Mechanics is different as the author uses unorthodox approach. What is unusual is the absence of the quotation marks for the direct speech in the conversation between the two main characters. This makes the story confusing because there is the tendency for the readers to mix up the narration with the dialog. The story also is direct and unadorned with rhetorical devices, which are common to many stories and novels. Aside from that, the author stays neutral and does not express his own opinion to either of the characters. He acts like a camera that transmits what is happening as he sees it. He leaves the story open for the readers to come out with their own speculations and conclusion. The story gives a vivid picture of what is going on to many families nowadays. The plot is very common: separation of married couple leads to the demise of their child/children. Due to its plainness, the story becomes insensitive. It is difficult to imagine a husband and a wife each pulling a hand of their infant. Although it is not indicated what happened to the infant, it is easy to assume that his tender limbs are impaired or, worse, detached. It is unfortunate that the settlement of the coupleÃ¢â¬â¢s conflict is the demise of their child. Work Cited: Carver, Raymond. Popular Mechanics. Online July 17, 2009 http://www. uni-koeln. de/ew-fak/institut/engl/coit/essay/essayws5-6/carver. htm
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Can a Historian Look at the Past Objectively? In the following lines, it is going to be discussed the statement It is impossible for an historian not to view the recent past through a moral or ideological lens. In order to offer a deeper insight in the topic, it has been considered appropriate to reformulate the statement, turning it into a question and formulating it in a positive way. As well, though we will go back to it later, it has been considered as well to remove the nuance recent from the question. Thus, this is the result: It is possible for a historian not to view the past through a moral and ideological lens?. These modifications, that as we may see dont distort the essence of the original proposal, will make easier to think about the topic, as facilitates the task of consider it from a historical and epistemological-based perspective, which enables us to give a broader picture about it and its historical roots. Anyway, in the conclusion, the original statement will be brought back again, and answered. The first step before going deep in this issue, is to define briefly what do we understand for moral and ideological lens. To question if history is written through a moral lens, applied to the case of historical studies, can be understood as questioning whereas all studies in the field are morally biased or not; what is to say, if beneath any text is it possible to find some clues about the moral position of the author. To explain what it is understood by ideological lens, it has been judged appropriated the definition given by professor Michael Hunt: an interrelated set of convictions or assumptions that reduce the complexity of a particular slice of reality to easily comprehensive terms and suggests appropriate ways of dealing with that reality. Maybe this definition can seem too broad, but it has been chosen precisely because of that: it allows to include in thiscategory not only the structures of thought that are usually considered as ideologies, such as Marxism or Liberalism, but as well different intellectual trends or other theories of knowledge. In other words, ideology is understood as an accepted body of ideas that helps to conduct a research and explain processes, in the field of social sciences. Hence, an approach through an ideological lens consists on the analysis and reconstruction of historical events through the referential points given by this structure. So, the discussion about if it is possible for a historian whether to see or not the recent past through a moral or ideological lens is about his capacity of keeping his own position and concerns outside the view of the past that is offering through his writings. In the end, the issue under discussion here can be identified with the recurring argument in historiography about objectivity and subjectivity in historical research. Therefore, along the essay we will make a lot of references to it. Once the concepts have been focused, everything is ready to continue diving in our issue. As it has been seen, the matter that occupies us can be identified with the historiographical discussion of whether objectivity is possible or not. In the following lines, we will bring up the main positions stood among scholars around this question, and the shifts that those views have experienced along the last century. This will help to give some steps towards a solution to it. Traditionally, related to the issue of objectivity and subjectivity, from the theoretical positions among the scholars in the field, we could distinguish two currents. On one hand, those who defend that objectivity can be achievable, and that is mandatory; on the other, those who think that is not only an unrealistic aim, but an undesirable one. Of course, as always in social sciences, this distinction must not be intended to be pure and rigid. On the first group, we could find the pioneer of the discipline Leopold Von Ranke, and his line has been followed by other historians such as Trevelyan or David Thomson. Quoting Ranke, the main position of this group can be summarized in the idea that history is about simply to show how it really was; to learn it in its own terms. They justify this main statement in the idea that there is a need to give primacy to the facts, that them should be the main point of departure of any historical research. Hence, history should be about establishing facts in a first stance, and identifying connections, but with a total detachment from the object of study, without contaminating historical reality with personal prejudices. Of course, we can find some variants among this group, as some objectivists will concede some space to speculation or personal interpretation. This is the case of Trevelyan indeed, or of a XIX century intellectual who stated that facts are sacred, opinion is free. But they all share the main standpoint that primacy have to be given to the facts, and that interpretation and historical reconstruction must be perfectly distinguished. On the other hand, we could find a school of historians which can be englobed in a more subjectivist trend. In this group, we can find historians such as Benedetto Croce, in the early XX century, or Carr himself, in the sixties. One of the most enlightening summaries of this view Croces statement all history is contemporary history; they understood that the task of the historian was to see the past through the eyes of the present, and to evaluate it (from it). Therefore, they argued that all his ideas, theories and assumptions, his ideological and moral background, were reflected upon the text. In this way, Carr would argue that, despite facts are the backbone of historical studies, are not its reason. It can be said that what he was trying to say is that facts are necessary condition, but not sufficient. But this group distinction is not useful anymore, since the outbreak in the late XX Century of a new school of thought that shivered, and still doing, the foundations of historical theory: postmodernism. Despite all the differences of perspective that confronted both trends, they were discussing inside a shared paradigm: modernity. Maybe they didnt agree in the relationship of the historian with his work, in the idea of detachment, or on the primacy of the facts doctrine, but all of them agreed on the idea that the achievable aim of the discipline was related to historical truth. It can be counterargued that they stood a different conception of the concept of historical truth, but undoubtedly shared the standpoint that his works where referring to an external truth. The outbreak of postmodernism from the late sixties onwards broke with this shared paradigm. From the field of philology and philosophy, the idea that there is not linkage between reality and the works that try to explain it, spread to the other branches of knowledge. Postmodernists, such as the French philosopher Jacques Derrida, regarded that objectivity in historical studies must be understood as an unachievable myth, a mere product of what might be called the referential illusion. Following the path charted by the early postmodernists on the sixties, some historians such as Theodore Zeldin accepted these basis, assuming a relativism through the acceptance of the premises that historical texts are not bound to any historical truth, so are to be seen as mere subjective personal views. These assumptions were elevated to the category of rights, understanding that every historical explanation should be regarded as a personal tale, concluding therefore, as Zeldin states, everyone has the right to find his own perspective. As we can see, if we want to preserve the binary distinction of two confronted groups, to gain a faithful picture of the current discussion, we have to reformulate it. Then, in one side we find the post-modernist view, which claims not only that any view in history is biased by moral and ideological concerns, but that everything is ideology and morals, those of the author, who stands behind the tale. On the other, those who believe that reference to historical truth is achievable. Inside this group, we may find some differences about the specific definition of truth or the role of ideology and so on, but this main point unifies them. Nowadays, it is commonly accepted that some ideological and moral bias is unavoidable, but among this group it is denied that this doesnt allow to reach certain objective conclusions. So, if we want to stay in the frame of the current polemics in the field, the question about whether it is impossible not to view the past through a moral or ideological lens requires to inquiry in which way historians pre-assumptions are reflected on his work, to which extent does it distort the vision about the past, and whether this enables us to talk about an achievable objective historical truth or not. Until now, we have been focusing the question: first, by clarifying the concepts; later, by having a brief look to the status of the issue among scholars. The latter point lead us to the stance that is widely accepted that moral and ideology are present in any historical work. There is no one easy answer to what are the implications of it, and we have thought that the best way of understanding it is by revising some of the main elements that take part in historical research. Through a brief study of how history is made, we will be able to understand how the moral and ideological assumptions of the author, his subjectivity, are present on his works. But before that, as are very related to the question of How?, it would be interesting to have a brief look to the question of What is the historian looking for? and the reasons of why is it judged of interest. Of course, the questions of What? and Why history? would deserve a whole essay. But our aim is not to tackle with the topic of the nature of history. Therefore, we will devote just a few lines to these matters. 4.1) What? The question of what history is was first critically formulated by Ranke, who developed the idea that historys aim was to study it in its own terms, how it really was. The idea was that the historian had to go to the archives, and collect facts which would explain how was the past. So, we can say, he understood that history was a reality that resided in the sources, and that was within reach for the historian, who could carry on a reconstruction of it. This conception of history explains why some historians from the positivist school, in the late XIX Century, thought that they were near the moment where, been all the archives revised, definite historical truth was going to be reached. The problem is that it seems to be an out-of-focus vision. The past is not out there anymore, it is dead. This have been emphasized by some historians along the XX Century, such as Marwick who remarks the idea that past doesnt exist anymore, and that all we have from it are relics and traces through which the historian has to work in order to offer a more or less plausible synthesis of the past. And this can be complemented with Carrs emphasis on the fact that historical research is made from the present, from a different context and perspective than its object of study. Though sometimes is near falling in a relativist view often criticised by other scholars, asElton did, he has helped to develop among the discipline a valuable concern about how our study of the past is conducted by interests and ways of doing moulded by the present time. So, this leads us to a new idea of history as a discipline: instead of the reconstruction of the past, it is a representation where the role of the historian should be taken into account. The past is dead, and it is not going to be brought into live again. What we only have are traces, rests, ruins of it, and the task of the historian is to create explanatory models from them, trying to be faithful to the historical reality they refer to. In a metaphorical way, we can say that history is like the representation of a landscape painted by a painter backwards it, guided by the indications of a man in who he relies. He doesnt see the landscape, but he can create a more or less faithful image of it; depending on how skilful he is, on his capability of asking the accurate questions to his friend, on his ability of deduction and his experience and so on, he would create a better or worse representation of it. But the representation would not be an exact reproduction of the landscape. First, because it would not be the intention: it is a 2-D representation of a 3-D reality. But as well because a lot of data would be missed, even being his friend a good guide, and the painter would have to deduce some of the connections made on the canvas, implying all his capacities of reasoning, deducing, comparing, thinkingÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ always at service of the, for him fragmented, reality that is trying to portray. Following this example, a postmodernist could argue that is pointless to think that there could be a real bond between our blind painters representation and the landscape. So, he shouldnt try it; what he would have to do is to be conscious that his representation is a totally disengaged vision of the landscape, so what he would only be able to do is to create freely his own personal interpretation. But then he wouldnt be accomplishing the task he has been initially asked: to reach a proper representation of the landscape. He would create a beautiful and colourful composition, but a meaningless one. Coming back from the metaphor,the historian who is unaware of the object of study, history, cannot be conceived as a writer of history, but of poetry or literature. Hence, post-modernism is not applicable to history, as both are incompatible: the historian who fully accepts that premises cannot be called a historian, as he is rejecting the main foundation of the discipline: to offer a proper representation of history. So, what we can conclude from all this is: a) Historian aspires, at most, to a representation of the past. b) Hence, the historian, with his moral and ideological beliefs, is present on his work, as he interprets and establishes connections from the present. c) This doesnt mean that the outcome is a mere creation: his construction is supposed to be bonded to reality, to the ideal of how it was. If he rejects that, reducing it to a mere self-expression of personal moral and ideological points of view, is doing anything but history. 4.2) Why? This issue will be briefly sketched out, with the main aim of presenting the point of view stood along the essay. Why history? Why is historical inquiry of interest? We have found an almost infinite range of points of view along the bibliography selected, from its justification due to the explanation of development of human values through history, to the argument that is the only way of understand our contemporary context. As we will see on following lines the Why? stood by the historian determines the How? is the research carried on. But, however, there is an essential characteristic that lies under any of the different points of view: interest in history stems from the interest of understanding the human being in society. And from there, different ways of facing this issue enrich the whole. Hence: a) There is not a specific answer to the question Why history?, but all can be summarized in the study of the past of the human being in society. b) The different ways and perspectives through it is studied enriches the whole. 4.3) How? Once the questions of the What? and Why? history have been overviewed, we are reaching the central point of this essay: to see which is the role played by the ideological and moral own views of the historian in his work through answering to the question of How is it done?. Having a look to some of the essential aspects that intervene in the process of writing history will enable us to see how historians personal concerns are reflected on his work and how does this happen. First, a brief insight to the relationship between the historian and the facts and sources. Carr defines it through a comparison with fishery: [Facts] are like fish swimming about in a vast and sometimes inaccessible ocean; and what the historian catches will depend [Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦] on what part of the ocean he chooses to fish in and what tackle he chooses to use- these two factors been determined by the kind of fish he wants to catch. What he is trying to explain is how the historian is not a mere passive processer of data, but an active agent from the very starting point of selecting the information in which is going to root his research. But the question is: in base to what does he make the selection? In base to his own concerns? Or in base of the preferences of history? What is to say: the facts he looks for are determined by his own interests or by what history demands? As we have argued previously, history is about a representation of the past, where it is the main character, the object of study. So, it seems that would make sense to assert that the questions that the historian asks to the raw materials may be pounded faithfully to the preferences of history. Of course, at a first stance, when he hardly knows anything about the topic is going to study, his research will be driven by questions raised in the present, related to his concerns. But this will change progressively as he makes progress. Through inquiring the raw sources, to make them talk, the historian comes up with more questions, but this time not formulated in base to the present but to the foreign country which is been re-visited. And by keeping this process, he manages to go deeper in the past, to understand better the people who lived there, the process that affected their lives. So, in theory, it appears to be possible the goal set by Ranke of getting to know the past in its own terms. But when we examine any work of history, even the considered to be the best ones, we discover that, indeed, this doesnt happen. Every history book or paper can be classified in an ideological or moral spectrum due to its conclusions. In order to understand properly why does this happen, in the next lines we are going to proceed to an insight to what has been called the nature of the historian. Through this, we will go back to some of the issues which have just been covered. So, in the following lines we are going to deal with the issue of the nature of the historian in what pretends to be an invitation for the reader to think about who is the historian and how does his moral and ideological point of view affects his historical production. We will focus on three aspects, which are those who have been seen to be the most problematic: context, ideology as framework and categories as a vehicle for indirect judgement. As is aforementioned, the historian is not a machine, but a human who has his own beliefs and experiences emotions, who is part of his society, so shares the cultural background of his epoch and is affected by academic theories or trends. As Jordanova argues all historians have ideas already in their minds when they study primary materials- models of human behaviour, established chronologies, assumptions about responsibility, notions of identity and so on. On the other hand, the historian is a professional devoted to the study from the past, through the construction of explanatory models of it in the most accurate way possible. Hence, we can detect the dual reality of the historian, which causes tensions. Lets have a look to how all this corpus of premises affects the historians craft. First of all, we have to bear in mind that the historian is part of a specific time and society that constrains him when creates his explanatory models about the past. For example, a historian in the sixties would be attracted by schools such as the cliometricians in the US or Annales in France, based on theories that championed more integration of the discipline with other social sciences such as sociology or economy, as some of them they understood that it was the way of reaching certain and objective conclusions. This was translated into the predominance of a history based on the processing of data, quantifiable perspectives of the past, on analysis rather than narrative, predominance of social perspective rather than the study of individuals and so on. Part of this schools where Emmanuel Roy de Laudurie and Lawrence Stone, who argued respectively that history that is not quantifiable cannot claim to be scientific and that quantification was the way of pushing back widely spread historical myths. But this conception wrecked partly because of its own exhaustion, partly because new trends surpassed it, such as post-modernist trends (that emphasized the study of the unconscious instead of data at a social level), radical historians (that argued for a more narrative history instead of analysis and promoted new objects of study such as what they understood of the hidden and oppressed of history), and so on. And with this change of paradigm, a lot of supporters of the quantitative view changed their mind, as is the case of both Le Roy and Stone. The former wrote in the sixties a book about the collective imagery in a French medieval village; the latter is well known for having written a high-impact paper claiming for the revival of narrative. As we can see, if changes the context where the ideological premises of the historian have been built, also changes the way of understanding it. In the end, changes the anthropological conception of who and how the human being is. Is the case of Le Roy: his idea of human as a being constrained by the means of production rooted in a materialist view of the world gave way to a new vision where the un-material (imaginaries and so on) was judged as more relevant in order to explain his anthropological basis. Hence, we can see that the context may influence heavily the ideological premises of the historian; and with a shift on it, changes, consequently, his way of ponderingthe past. Especially important is the case of that historiography explicitly based on an ideology. Maybe the most remarkable case is the Marxist historiography, which has kept a strong presence in the field during almost the whole XX century. Great historians such as E.P Thompson, Christopher Hill or Eric Hobsbawm didnt hesitate in defending Marxism as an especially useful point of departure for historical research. As confessed Marxists they were, his studies focused on topics related to the world of labour from a materialistic perspective and dealt with categories and concepts such as bourgeois, class and class struggle, means of production Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ full of Marxists implications. The use of categories in history is another example of how present is historians moral and ideological point of view in his work. Categories are not neutral, but full of implications. As we have seen, Marxist historians are predisposed to explain history through Marxist categories. But we can think on an infinite range of examples: categories such as democratic or fascist, and so on, are often used as a way of setting moral judgements. Hence, through the mere choice of categories, the historian is, though implicitly, judging. Facing this picture, it could seem that post-modernist assumptions about the impossibility of getting over ones point of view and reach historical truths are certain. To counterargue this conclusion, has been found (as Evans also does)  to be very useful the concept of objectivity encouraged by Thomas Haskell, which regards it more as a quality of the historian itself than of the text: ascetic self-discipline that enables a person to do such things as abandon wishful thinking, assimilate bad news, discard pleasing interpretations that cannot past elementary tests of evidence and logic, and, most important at all, suspend [Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦] ones own perceptions long enough to enter sympathetically into the alien and possibly repugnant perspectives of rival thinkers. In the end, we could say that writing good history, capable of reaching historical truth, is about been able of transcending ones point of view and subordinate it to the historical reality faced along the study of the sources. It could be said that is a matter of primacy, of been able to give primacy to the history rather than to ones position. Lets examine this with some of the examples aforementioned. We have mentioned the case of Hobsbawm. As it has been said, he developed a historical analysis from a Marxist point of view. But when we say that we are not assuming that he was fitting his conclusions into that premises, enforcing reality to fit it into his ideological point of view. Indeed, he was able to reach conclusions which challenged the traditional Marxist point of view, as happens when asserts that macro-social analysis difficulties to understand the nature of Revolutions by exaggerating structure and devaluating situation, as them can only been explained historically, focusing on the specific, and not theoretically, through generalisations. Or when writes about nationalism in a much more cultural way than just based on Marxists social theory and framework. Marxist theory guided his historical inquiry, but he was not closed to re-interpreting it if the sources demanded it, and was opened as well to consider historical problems without absolutizing any kind of historical causes or perspectives. His capacity of considering all the points of view, of not closing his historical inquiry to his ideological preferences, and to giving primacy to the historical sources rather than to his personal ideological premises, makes his work valid until today. A counter example would be the case of Carr, whose History of Soviet Russia has been often criticised because of overlooking Stalinist repression. And is a precise critique: in what he said was an accurate accountant of the development of the Soviet state, he disregarded that crucial point due to a strong ideological bias. Or the case of some ideologically-motivated gender history, that absolutizes ahistorical concepts, such as patriarchy, fitting history into its predetermined framework. Another example are Foucaultspseudo-historical writings, which are more a kind of philosophical works based on historical examples, where theory clearly outweighs historical rigor. In this cases, the primacy of history is not preserved; far from that, it is toughly violated, as is placed at the service of the moral and ideological framework of the writer. We have mentioned as well the issue of categories as a way of implicit moral and ideological judgement. The historian will never get rid of it, but can perfectionate his ability to represent history accurately through them. Lets bring again the example of the category fascist. If the historian is able to understand it properly, and is conscious of all its implications, he will be able to make an appropriate use of it, according to historical standards. Then, if he remains faithful to the sources, would be in the position of identifying fascist movements, or fascist behaviours as were historically understood in the time studied. It will, for example, help him to differentiate it from other kind of authoritarian ideologies, point which is often confused. And this is the way that objectivity should be understood: as a capacity of detachment that allows the historian to overcome a fully present-minded and ideological interpretation. And departs from the assertion that primacy must be given to the demands of history, to the guidance of the sources. A way of assessing if this has been achieved is through the test of time: the validity of its conclusions through a wide span of time. Quoting again Tosh, is what made him to assert that Hobsbawms Age of Revolution still unsurpassed, even when Marxism is not anymore seen as a reliable framework of interpretation. All of this can be achievable only if this principle of objectivity is assumed. But it is just a necessary condition, but not sufficient. To accomplish it depends as well on the skill of the historian. But without it, doesnt matter how much skilful the historian is, that his work will not stand the test of time. Along this essay, we have revised some polemic aspects about the historians relationship with his object of study. First of all, after fixing definitions of moral and ideology, we have revised some of the attitudes across the historiography about our topic. Then, through answering to the questions What?, Why? and How? we have explored the relationship between the historian and history, between his perso
Monday, August 19, 2019
These days, technology is one of the most important things in our modern lives. It has made our lives more convenient. But have we ever sat back and thought about the effect of its power on our society? Technology has influenced on essential things in our lives. Have you ever thought that what our society will become in the next decade with the fast-growing technology? Technology and its power has the strong influences on our society that we can not realize if we don't sit back and think about it. The Internet and the World Wide Web are creating networks of human connection unthinkable even a few years ago? (Tannen, 647). The Internet is one kind of technologies that has helped people many things in our lives and if without it, we would not know what to do instead. E-mail gave me the chance to be in touch with someone who dying far away? (Tannen 646). People can get in touch with others who live far away in only a second by sending an e-mail or making a phone call. People can even look at each others when they are far away by using webcam over the Internet or making a video phone. Technology can make impossible things to become possible ones. ?When my friend Larry died, how much it meant that the telephone made it possible to spend a day talking to others who knew him. How much it meant that Larry said goodbye. This is a gift he gave me, and technology made it possible.? Technology and its power encourage people to do things that they can not do without technology. For exampl e, I would had left my country, Vietnam, coming to America because I knew that I can keep in touch with my relatives and my friends who are in Vietnam easily by using the Internet or telephone anytime I want to. By reading ?The library card? in our textbook, I know that African-American could not read some kinds of books in the early of twentieth century. ?There was a huge library near the riverfront, but I knew that Negros were not allowed to patronize its selves any more than they were the parks and playgrounds of the city? (Wright, 136). If technology had grown at that time, everybody would have read what they want to read without going to a library.
Insider vs. Outsider in The Blue Hotel, The Displaced Person, Bernice Bobs her Hair, and Novel In Dubious Battle Whenever a stranger enters an unfamiliar society, a clash between the outsiderÃ¢â¬â¢s practices and societyÃ¢â¬â¢s guidelines undoubtedly occurs. Whether the resulting conflict minimally or powerfully affects the people involved depends on the situation, but usually the results are monumental. In the short stories Ã¢â¬Å"The Blue Hotel,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"The Displaced Person,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Bernice Bobs her Hair,Ã¢â¬ and the novel In Dubious Battle, societyÃ¢â¬â¢s fear of the stranger has severe negative consequences for the newcomer, as the communityÃ¢â¬â¢s rules prevail over the outsiders in the end. A pattern emerges in the four stories, where societyÃ¢â¬â¢s wariness of the outsider, whether warranted or unwarranted, triggers the rise and fall of the newcomer. The differences that each outsider possesses due to his or her own culture and upbringing, though varying from character to character, mark the source of the clash between the outsider and the community which he or she tries to enter. In Ã¢â¬Å"The Blue Hotel,Ã¢â¬ the Swede separates himself from the group both physically and verbally. His aloofness forces the other characters, who have already familiarized themselves with the small hotel in Nebraska, to suspect that he is dangerous. Their suspicions are indeed warranted, as demonstrated during the first card game of High-Five between Johnnie and the farmer. Ã¢â¬Å"The cowboy and the Easterner [watch] the game with interest, while the Swede remain[s] near the window, aloofÃ¢â¬ (39), displaying immediately that he has no intention of conforming to this societ yÃ¢â¬â¢s rules. After physically withdrawing from the others, the Swede does so verbally shortly after, stating that Ã¢â¬Å"th... ...hange a society that already has fixed practices, and he and the other workers pay the consequences. As Ã¢â¬Å"The Blue Hotel,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"The Displaced Person,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Bernice Bobs her Hair,Ã¢â¬ and In Dubious Battle demonstrate, the outsiders in each story, though instilling an initial fear in the eyes of society, experience a sudden and considerable downfall in the end. Each of these defeats, some more extreme than others, result from a clash of societyÃ¢â¬â¢s fixed guidelines with an outsiderÃ¢â¬â¢s challenge of these rules. Whether this rebellion against society constitutes a conscious or unconscious effort, and whether the punishment results in justifiable or unjustifiable consequences, one pattern emerges. The outsider instills fear in the mind of the community, and as a defense mechanism, society takes it upon itself to conquer the stranger, leading to his or her ultimate downfall.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"BlindfoldÃ¢â¬ by Diane Hoh Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The title of this book is called Blindfold and it is called that because at the end of the story before this girl is going to be killed the other girl blindfolds her. The author is Diane Hoh and there isnÃ¢â¬â¢t really any fact at all in this book about the author. The setting takes place in a small community, everybody knows everybody in this town. I think the theme of this book is to never trust anyone even if you think that they are your really good friends. The protagonist in this story is Maggie Keehe. The antagonist is lane the girl who is going on a killing spree and her next victim was Maggie. The character I most like is Maggie for one she is the main character. I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t really dislike any of the characters in this book. And no I really donÃ¢â¬â¢t agree with what some of the choices the characters make. For one Lane is killing a lot of people because she donÃ¢â¬â¢t like them. I would have not killed anyone in the first place. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The plot and summary of this story is Maggie lives in Felicity Ohio. They tell about the old courthouse and how the whole town is trying to work together to fix up the old courthouse. The courthouse had been in that town for many generations. To make a long story short there is a girl in town and she killed another girl with an iron. The police came after the boyfriend & arrested him. He had to be in jail for at least four years. The police didnÃ¢â¬â¢t take the case any further. The guy that was arrested and convicted supposedly tried to escape from his cell. His name was Dante Guandino. He never really tried to escape from his cell because later on in the book the kids are going over the courthouse and stubble over his body (it was decomposed) before any of this some one had tried to kill Maggie because she was at a cook out, and someone tried to blow up the building she as working in. She was hurt with minor injuries. Then the accident in the urbanely where so me one was pushing her ladder back and fourth and trying to hit her hand, then she falls through the floor on the cellar and discovers the decomposed body of Dante Guandino.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Humans can be good, evil, or even both, and the characteristics they portray represent who they are. Throughout many cultures around the world humans have characteristic traits that are good and evil. Universally speaking good defined by WebsterÃ¢â¬â¢s dictionary: Being positive or desirable in nature; not bad or poor. And Evil: Morally bad or wrong; wicked. Now one can say that bravery is a good characteristic for one to acquire. On the other hand, tricking/fooling/lying to some one is a bad characteristic for a human to posses. Honesty is generally identified as a good trait as well. Being brave and honest are great qualities identified around the world as good traits for a human to either receive or retain. But, Lying or tricking someone is known to be an evil trait for a human to exercise. In America and other countries around the world bravery is a very important quality for a human to own. In the past it was only men who could be brave, after all men were the ones fighting in the wars; it was their acts of bravery that has made the world what it is today. Now women are able to actually show how brave we are. There are now many women in war and all of them are brave. But, being brave does not just mean fighting for your country. It means being able to fight, think, and even feel pain for someone else. It can be as simple as a young child taking the training wheels off their bicycle. In the story And Clay we are Created two characters show tremendous acts of bravery, Azucena and Rolf. Azucena is a young 13 year old girl who is trapped for many days. Rolf is a reporter who over comes a fear while talking with her. In the end Azucena and Rolf both overcome a fear of death. Overcoming a fear is simply brave. Honesty is sometimes how the world goes roundÃ¢â¬â¢. If no one was honest then how would anyone be able to function or trust anyone? The world would be even more of a crueler place than it is now. Every employer is looking for that honest person. EveryoneÃ¢â¬â¢s vote goes to who they think is the more honest candidate. When people are honest they acquire a good reputation i. e. Honest Abe, that of course being one of our good presidents Abraham Lincoln. In the story A Piece of String the main character is accused of stealing a wallet full of money. His accuser said he saw him picking it up and then acting like he was looking for something. It was actually him just picking up a piece of string. After the main character got a bad reputation the wallet was returned, but unfortunately it didnÃ¢â¬â¢t instantly make him an honest person. Lying/ tricking a person or many people can be definitely looked on upon as evil or as a sin. Throughout US history many Presidents have lied. A couple of examples are Nixon and Clinton. But, not only in politics is where liars are found. They are found in court, on TV, and even in novels. For example Anansi in Anansi Owns All Tales That Are Told is a liar. He tricks animals and other insects into closed devices so he can bring them to the sky god, in order to own all stories that are told. Whether a person is good or evil depends on their traits as an individual. Sometimes a person is good and evil. And sometimes people are just plain evil. But Honesty and Bravery will always be looked upon as good traits. And Lying/ tricking will always be looked down upon by the human race.
Friday, August 16, 2019
Introduction The aim of this essay is to develop an understanding of identity and critically analyze how identity can be successfully used in an organizational control. It will provide a critique of dominant perspectives and frameworks in organizational identity that are obtained by studies in various academic materials, by referring to theories and research in related experiences and case studies. Meanwhile, positive and negative impacts of use of identity in organizational control will be estimated. Finally, a brief conclusion will be conducted and relevant considerations will be presented so as to effectively look at the use of identity regulation as organizational control. In order to better understand identity in organization studies, this essay will firstly aim to distinguish the difference between the terms Ã¢â¬ËpersonalityÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËidentityÃ¢â¬â¢. According to Kenny et al. (2011), personality can be defined as the integration of characteristics patterns of thoughts, emotions and behaviors that form an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s unique character. It is usually relatively stable for life; however the term identity, on the other hand, can change and turn into multiplicity as influence by external elements, such as social or cultural situations (Kitay and Wright, 2007). This change is because most people would like to associate themselves with a number of identities, while those significant identities will permit people to better believe in the occupation they do (Kitay and Wright, 2007). This has been further explained by Kenny et al. (2011, p.3) who state that identity can involve identification with factors (local context, culture and history ) that people call Ã¢â¬Ëour personalityÃ¢â¬â¢ but can also belong to Ã¢â¬Ëgroup membershipÃ¢â¬â¢, which particularly emerges in the workplace. According to the research of scholars in different sectors, identity has been systemically defined in different theoretical perspectives and is also seen as a social category or Ã¢â¬ËlabelÃ¢â¬â¢ in workplaces. Henri Tajfel and John Turner proposed social identity theory as they consider people generally use their experiences to identify themselves in certain social groups and dis-identify with others (Mattewman et al., 2009). In other words, they over-stress diversities with the out-group and underrate diversities within the in-group (OÃ¢â¬â¢Conner and Annison, 2002). Similarly, this perspective can be related to the idea of homo-sociability, which considers that people prefer to contact with and accept a person who is more like them, such as same social categories of class, age or religion (Kenny et al., 2011). Moreover, Zuboff (1988) and Brewis (2004) pointed out Foucauldian perspective which states people usually would like to identity with the sounds of thought or dominant discourses, therefore in this regard Ã¢â¬ËsubjectivityÃ¢â¬â¢ becomes the powerful relationship to shape individual identities in society. Foucauldian perspective, to some extent, can be seen as the idea of stereotypes; for example, many organizations will assume managers, especially in senior level, are male rather than female because of the cultural norm (Kanter, 1977). Mead (1934) and Goffman (1969) are two main thinkers in this symbolic interactionism perspective. Mead observes that individuals can constitute of Ã¢â¬ËMeÃ¢â¬â¢ (how we perceive others to think of us) and Ã¢â¬ËIÃ¢â¬â¢ (the kinds of attitudes and behaviors we use to interact with others). Similarly, Goffman observes identity as the Ã¢â¬Ëcontinuing process of managing how we present ourselves to othersÃ¢â¬â¢ (Kenny et al., 2011, p.15). Both views can be summed up in that people always establish their self-awareness through social interaction with other people (Gardner and Avolio, 1998). The above acade mic theories contribute a holistic view to allow people to further study Ã¢â¬ËidentityÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËcontrolÃ¢â¬â¢ in-depth. Researchers and management practitioners should seriously consider identity from different perspectives and categories in the society so as to ensure diversity and equality in the organizational management. Identity is a multidimensional concept that can be developed at individual, group and organizational level (Puusa, 2006). Nowadays, there is increasing interest in understand identity in organizational control studies. According to Kenny et al. (2011, p.1), Ã¢â¬Ëthe significance of identity was not simply recognized by management, it was identified as something that could be shaped and controlled by managementÃ¢â¬â¢. The concept of identity was first looked at from a management point of view by F.W.Taylor in 1911. In his opinion, a personÃ¢â¬â¢s identity proves to be a barrier to scientific management (Rose, 1988). As he believed that money was the best and only way to motivate people to work effectively, workers should lose their notion of identity so as to be prepared to fit in to different management models (Kenny et al., 2011). In a lower hierarchy level, TaylorÃ¢â¬â¢s theory seems to relatively correct. However, studies have shown that workers resisted these Ã¢â¬Ëscien tificÃ¢â¬â¢ methods as they considered that being a part of the group was more significant than earning more money (Kenny et al., 2011). Thus, it can be deemed that meaningful work is a strong dynamic of motivation and performance, and identity (e.g feeling a part of the group) is one of the important subjective factors that motivate people to work. This is in line with several commentators of the Ã¢â¬Ëhuman relation movementÃ¢â¬â¢ which states that identity is no longer to be removed by organizational management; for example MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Ëhierarchy of needsÃ¢â¬â¢, and AlderferÃ¢â¬â¢s Relatedness Existence theories. They entirely agreed that employees were stimulated not only by physical factors or money, but also by emotional and social needs in the group (Ross, 1988; Buchanan and Huczynski, 2004). Those needs are strong identification to lead employees to Ã¢â¬Ëgo to extra mileÃ¢â¬â¢ (become more flexible and productive) as well as improve their working passi on and enthusiasm (Ã¢â¬Ëdiscretionary effortÃ¢â¬â¢) within the organization (Alvesson and Willmott, 2002). Therefore, it can be asserted that identity is the key engine to driving employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ internal motivation in the organization. This is also supported by Alvesson and Willmott (2002, p. 621), who argue that identity is definitely Ã¢â¬Ëa significant, neglected and increasingly important modality of organizational controlÃ¢â¬â¢. Organizational identity is known as the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ view of the organization, which attempts to answer the question of Ã¢â¬Ëwho are we as an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢ (Kenny et al, 2011). It affords organizations with a feasible framework for understanding their internal behaviors (Whetten, 2006). Albert and Whetten (1985) argue that organizational identity embodies three significant characteristics which are central, distinctive and enduring. Following Albert and WhettenÃ¢â¬â¢s (1985) notion, several scholars further identified organizational identity in two different conceptions; realist and constructionist (Gioia and Thomas, 1996; Elstak and Van Riel, 2004). Realists believe that organizational identity is established on the properties of the organization themselves. Conversely, constructionists consider that a set of beliefs is understood by how employees make sense of the organizations. Therefore, through this dynamic, dialectic process it can be proven that employees both shape, and are shaped, by their organizational membership (Puusa, 2006). Meanwhile, it also can further allege that organizations with a strong identity have central attributes, distinctive from other corporations and maintaining that for long-term periods can lead organizations to motivate their employees more effectively and successfully. The positive impacts of organizational identity could appear in several aspects. Firstly, employees will become more self-managing and prefer to approach their jobs with passion and enthusiasm as well as undertaking their responsibilities seriously (Knights and Willmott, 1999). Secondly, it is an essential approach for an organization to attract high-quality employees in order to embrace employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ desired values and allow them to treat the values as their own (Kenny et al, 2011). Moreover, it can gain and retain employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ loyalty, commitment and involvement so as to compensate less job security and employment durability in the workforce (Alvesson and Willmott, 2002). Furthermore, managing through shared values, thoughts and feelings have replaced the original ways of managing behaviors (Knights and Willmott, 1999). This has been further explained by Kenny et al. (2011) who stressed that organizations donÃ¢â¬â¢t just want to recruit the people who think that they wil l fit into the workplace, but they are now more focused on how to shape employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ sense of identity after they join. As culture is contingent upon identity, managing Ã¢â¬Ëcorporate cultureÃ¢â¬â¢ is integral to managing identity, which can be seen as the most common way to shape employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ self-identity and behaviors (Kenny et al., 2011). On the other hand, organizational identity also brings some problems which organizers have to bear in mind. Firstly, organizational identity attempts to over control employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ hearts and minds; this can link back to Foucauldian perspective which estimated that employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ sense of identity can be strongly dominated by Ã¢â¬Ëenterprise discourseÃ¢â¬â¢ (Du Gay, 1996; Kenny et al., 2011). Following this problem, employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ creativity and innovative skills will minimize or even cannot be discovered in the corporation; therefore it will critically affect organizational improvement and development. Furthermore, employees may feel anxiety or guilty if they attempt to judge or fail to follow the sanctified values of an organization (Schwartz, 1987). Due to the above feelings and matters, ethics has become an ambiguous issue when implementing identity management as organizational control, and it may relate to Ã¢â¬ËbureaucraticÃ¢â¬â¢ control mechanismsÃ¢â¬â¢ probl ems as well (Alvesson and Willmott, 2002). Although there are some negative impacts of using identity as a form of organizational control, there are still many famous companies carefully and successfully designing and advertising their corporate values by managing organizational identity, such as Apple, Alibaba and IKEA (Kenny et al., 2011). Therefore, it can be affirmed that organizational identity is not only focusing on one company or region; it becomes more internationalization and globalization at present. Because of this phenomenon, there are increasing numbers of concentrated issues of identity presented in the workplace as well, such as gender and managerial roles issues; the changing idea of professionalism and the international business activities (Fondas, 1997; Alvesson, 2000; Alvesson and Willmott, 2002). In order to diminish the above issues and manage identity effectively, organizers should provide more opportunity for employees to arrange their agenda and working practices, to maintain a sense of freedom to help motivate people at work, this is classed as Ã¢â¬Ëmicro-emancipationÃ¢â¬â¢ (Alvesson and Willmott, 2002). This sense of freedom could be better enforced to show and understand in a new standard form of organizational control, which is called fun organizational identities. This new form not only encourages diversity and allows employees to express their Ã¢â¬ËgenuineÃ¢â¬â¢ feelings in the workplace, but also assists to increase productivity, creativity, inspiration and reduced employee turnover (Fleming and Sturdy, 2009; Ford et al.,2003). For instance, Southwest Airlines is known as a fun organization to work for, which classes employee satisfaction and customer loyalty as more important than corporate profits. They consider people their Ã¢â¬Ësingle greatest streng th and the most enduring long-term competitive advantageÃ¢â¬â¢ (SouthwestÃ¢â¬â¢s Airlines Careers, 2014). Southwest AirlinesÃ¢â¬â¢ unique identity makes them stand out from all others and delivers benefits to both individuals and the organization. However, there are still a number of disadvantages of having a fun work environment in organizations, such as professionalism at work, reports of sexual harassment and interpersonal conflicts (Ford et al., 2003). Thus, managers should bear those issues in mind and find out solutions as soon as possible so that they can become distinctive to other corporations and reduce the potential risks in the early stage. Organizations should also be conscious of the variation in levels of identification within their workforce (Dutton et al., 1994). Humphreys and Brown (2002) declare that identification is usually a complex and partial procedure, and they defined this process in three categories, which are dis-identification, schizo-identification and neutral identification. And a similar set of classes has been proposed by Collinson (2003) in three levels, these are, conformist selves, dramaturgical selves and resistant selves. Based on these theories, managers should try to use different methods to manage identity so as to stimulate employees to work harder and perform better and also to obtain a high degree of employees who define themselves as a part of the organization (Kenny et al., 2011). According to Kenny et al. (2011), organizations can manage identity in five different ways; these are controlling, concealing, exploiting, faking and shaping. In practice, in order to make employees have a sense of belonging, loyalty and commitment, and be willing to promote the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s vision, the organizers should focus on managing their identity in the following ways: a) allow employees to see and know about their career planning in the company, thereby creating hope for them; b) organizations need to explicitly promote the values and vision of the corporation to establish an industry benchmark. For example a hotel brand should treat Accor Hotel Group as their final objective and formulate a long-term, detailed schedule to achieve this goal. This schedule can include how many hotels should open in one year or how this hotel brand can develop in five years or ten years; c) the organization should have strong corporate social responsibility, which includes creating mo re job opportunities, especially for disabled people, environment protection (e.g haze or flood) and good employee welfare (e.g set up a compliant institution so as to protect employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ benefits). If organizations can accomplish the above steps successfully, employees will feel part of the organization and will be proud of it, and also will put their shoulders on the wheel in order to achieve their career objectives. Additionally, organizations should also manage identity in terms of physical and moral support so as to increase employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ sense of honor in the group. For example a Japanese senior manager will bow his thanks to the best employees every day, and organizations usually would like to hold some activities to let employees vent outside of their work. In 2010, Foxconn had 18 employees attempt to commit suicide with a total of 14 deaths (Moore, 2012). This example shows the importance of managing identity to motivate employees in an organization. Therefore, managers should take into account Alvesson and WillmottÃ¢â¬â¢s (2002) eight methods of regulating identity in organizations, such as knowledge and skills; the rules of the game and hierarchical location, to better understand different ways of managing identity and successfully carry them out in the workplace. Overall, identity is a true essence of who and what the organization is. It is a significant organizing element for everything people say and do in the workplace and it affects the characters, values, communications, decisions and strategies of the organization. Organization with a strong identity becomes easier to make decisions and solve their internal conflicts. Employees can clearly know what is expected of them, understand the company and also feel part of the team. Ethical ambiguities and some other issues still affect the idea of identity regulation in organizational control. Moreover, due to the fast changing pace of business life at present, identity cannot be Ã¢â¬ËenduringÃ¢â¬â¢ in the organization and it may change with the surrounding environments. For example, the Equality Act 2010 presents a new Ã¢â¬ËprotectedÃ¢â¬â¢ status to certain social groups which may influence employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ sense of identity and identification. Thus, management practitioners have to d eeply understand the different methods of identity management proposed by Kenny et al.Ã¢â¬â¢s (2011) and Alvesson and WillmottÃ¢â¬â¢s (2002) and then integrate those methods to solve the existing challenges in the working environment so as to successfully use identity as a form in organizational control. References Albert,S. and Whetten,D.A. (1985). Organizational identity. Research in organizational behavior, 7, pp.263-295. Alvesson,M. (2000). Social identity and the problem of loyalty in knowledge-intensive companies. Journal of Management Studies, 37 (6), pp.1101-1123. Alvesson,M. and Willmott,H. (2002). Identity Regulation as Organizational Control: Producing the Appropriate Individual. Journal of Management Studies, 39 (5), pp.619-644. Buchanan,D. And Huczynski, A. (2004). Organizational Behavior. 5th ed. Harlow: Pearson. Collinson,D. (2003). Identities and insecurities: selves at work. Organization, 10 (3), pp.527-547. Du Gay, P. (1996). 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