Friday, November 29, 2019

Womens Rights (3423 words) Essay Example For Students

Womens Rights (3423 words) Essay Womens RightsNot ago, in the nineteenth century, the words that our forefathers wrote in the Declaration of Independence, â€Å"that all men were created equal,† held little value. Human equality was far from a reality. If you were not born of white male decent, than that phrase did not apply to you. During this period many great leaders and reformers emerged, fighting both for the rights of African Americans and for the rights of women. One of these great leaders was Elizabeth Cady Stanton. Stanton dedicated her entire life to the women’s movement, despite the opposition she received, from both her family and friends. In the course of this paper, I will be taking a critical look at three of Stanton’s most acclaimed speeches â€Å"Declaration of Sentiments†, â€Å"Solitude of Self†, and â€Å" Home Life†, and develop a claim that the rhetoric in these speeches was an effective tool in advancing the movement as a whole. Elizabeth Cady Stanton was born November 12, 1815, in Johnstown, New York. She was born unto a conservative, Presbyterian family of considerable social standing. Her father, Judge Daniel Cady, was considered to be both a wealthy landowner and a prominent citizen with great political status (Banner 3). Stanton was one of seven children, 6 of which were girls, to be born to Daniel and Margaret. Growing up in the period that she did, Elizabeth was very fortunate to receive the outstanding education that she did since it was not as important to educate daughters as it was sons. She overcame that boundary when she began attending Johnstown Academy. She was the only girl in most of her classes, which was unheard of in those days. Even when females did attend schools, they were learning about â€Å"womanly† things, like how to run a household, not advanced math and science courses, like she was in. She then went on to further her education at a very prominent educational institution, Emma Willard’s Troy Seminary. After that she studied law with her father, who was a New York Supreme Court Judge. It is through this training that her awareness was raised about the discrimination that women were subjected to. In 1840, Elizabeth married an abolitionist organizer named Henry Stanton, much to her family’s dismay. After their marriage, Elizabeth and her husband traveled to London for a worldwide antislavery convention. It was here that she met Lucretia Mott, another well-know women’s rights reformist, who was chosen as an American delegate to the convention. They were both outraged that the female delegates that were attending this convention were denied participation because of their sex. It was at this convention that their fire was ignited and they became allies in the war against the discrimination of women’s rights. The first wave of the women’s movement is said to have begun roughly in the year 1840, and lasted through the year 1925. While the conve ntion in London sparked the fire in 1840, it was not until 1845, that the fire was a full blaze. The signature event that is believed to be the official starting point of the women’s suffrage movement was in 1848 when a group of women met in Seneca Falls, New York (Wood 66). The Senaca Falls Convention was organized by a group of women, including Stanton, that were fed up with the mistreatment of women in the antislavery battle. They were now going to primarily place their focus on the rights of women. Consequently, the movement became almost entirely white, both in interest and membership (Wood 68). It was at this first convention that Stanton delivered the Speech the â€Å"Declaration of Sentiments† which addressed the grievances that women had suffered under the â€Å"unjust government of men†. I will go into much greater detail concerning the specifics of this speech, later in the paper. We will write a custom essay on Womens Rights (3423 words) specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now In the beginning, the women’s movement was not just a single-issue movement. Stanton realized that women were being oppressed in every aspect of their lives. Among the causes that she advocated are as follows: coeducation, girls’ sports, job training, equal wages, labor unions, birth control, cooperative nurseries and kitchens, property rights for wives, child custody rights for mothers, and reform of divorce laws (Wood 67). Many women did not find a problem with fighting for these grievances, they were, however, fearful of the suffrage issue. They felt that it was just too radical. Stanton, however, recognized the importance of the politics, due to the influence of her father, during the early years of her life. She knew that without the right to vote, or political recognition, women had little chance of advancement. Stanton and the other women like Susan B. Anthony, Lucy Stone, and Sojourner Truth, who organized the Seneca Falls convention, had great hopes that this c onvention would trigger â€Å"a series of conventions embracing every part of the country.† And that is exactly what happened. Women’s rights conventions were held on a regular basis from 1850 until the start of the civil war (Gurko 27). It was after the civil war, that the movement suffered a setback. The main focus of political reform that dominated after the civil war was Black suffrage. This very much so influenced the struggle for women suffrage. The abolitionists, whom the women had fought for and felt they were allies with, turned their back on the women. The abolitionist wanted nothing to do with the women’s struggle for freedom until their rights were secure. It was at this time that to women realized that gaining the right to vote had to be their most important focus. It was then that â€Å"women’s rights† became almost synonymous with â€Å"women’s suffrage†(88 DuBois). Although the alliance with the abolitionists had been broken, this disaffiliation refueled the women’s fire and made them reevaluate the substance as well as the form of the women suffrage movement. Their base of argument was no longer on â€Å"universal suffrage†, rather the suffrage of women, based on the actual grievances of women’s lives. Stanton brought into attention the sexual exploitation of women, the nature of marriage, and the need for divorce reform (DuBois 94). She made the connection between these exploitations and the need for political equality in a speech that she delivered in 1875, â€Å"Home Life†. Again, I will be addressing this speech in greater detail, later in my paper. Elizabeth Stanton was no stranger to criticism. Later in the movement she introduced many controversial beliefs that many critics would say discredited her accountability as a great leader (Banner 159). Stanton believed that organized religion had a conservative impact on society, which led women to tolerance and submission to authority, which counteracts the movement’s belief in equality. Stanton made her opinions public that she felt the church is was major cause of women’s oppression. This belief was not popular among many of the followers, thus causing them to turn against her. The later part of the nineteenth century was not an easy time for Stanton. She was heralded as being a radicalist in a time were conservatism was dominant. Stanton, realized that her time as a key leader of the movement was running out. In her most famous speech, â€Å"Solitude of Self†, which was delivered when she resigned as president of the NAWSA (National American Women Suffrage A ssociation), Stanton presented the philosophical core of her thought about women’s emancipation. She also addressed the differences between her controversial ideas and those with more conservative beliefs, that were coming to dominate the suffrage movement (187 DuBois). Her basic message in this speech was that of the necessity of equal rights for all individuals, a theme that was central to all her writings and speeches. While Stanton never did get to see the rewards of her life long struggle, the nineteenth amendment, which allowed women the right to vote, was passed nearly 20 years after her death. Her struggles and hardships she had endured were not in vein. Victory prevailed. Now that I have provided an extensive overview of Elizabeth Stanton and the women’s movement during the late nineteenth century, I will now be taking a closer look at the rhetorical components of three of Stanton’s speeches that I have just mentioned. Speeches can be extremely difficul t to analyze due to their complexity. The way that I, as a critic, intend to tackle these complexities will be by employing the following four steps: observation, analysis, interpretation and evaluation (Foss 26). .ud699567c486bdf5954965ebc1de4010a , .ud699567c486bdf5954965ebc1de4010a .postImageUrl , .ud699567c486bdf5954965ebc1de4010a .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ud699567c486bdf5954965ebc1de4010a , .ud699567c486bdf5954965ebc1de4010a:hover , .ud699567c486bdf5954965ebc1de4010a:visited , .ud699567c486bdf5954965ebc1de4010a:active { border:0!important; } .ud699567c486bdf5954965ebc1de4010a .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ud699567c486bdf5954965ebc1de4010a { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ud699567c486bdf5954965ebc1de4010a:active , .ud699567c486bdf5954965ebc1de4010a:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ud699567c486bdf5954965ebc1de4010a .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ud699567c486bdf5954965ebc1de4010a .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ud699567c486bdf5954965ebc1de4010a .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ud699567c486bdf5954965ebc1de4010a .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ud699567c486bdf5954965ebc1de4010a:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ud699567c486bdf5954965ebc1de4010a .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ud699567c486bdf5954965ebc1de4010a .ud699567c486bdf5954965ebc1de4010a-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ud699567c486bdf5954965ebc1de4010a:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: During the Holocaust, many labor and mass murder c EssayThe first speech I will focus on is her address that she delivered at the Senaca Falls convention in 1848. The â€Å"Declaration of Sentiments† focuses on women’s right to demand political equality, a stand that gave feminism a clear strategy that set it upon firm ground. Stanton, while she was not the sole composer of this speech, was the main driving force behind it. Upon first observation of the speech you will notice that she carefully drafted it to closely resemble the 1776 Declaration of Independence, thus connecting the women’s campaign for equal rights directly with the American symbol of Liberty. Using this former document as a model, she utilized as much of the original wording as possible. She also created a list of eighteen of the women’s grievances, the same numbers that were in the 1776 document. By using the 1776 declaration as a model, Stanton demonstrated great persuasive technique. Thomas Jefferson, who as the author of this document, was in his own time a great reformer, and since the rhetoric had already been widely accepted once, why not try it again? Now lets take a closer look at the significant changes and implications that were made in creating the new document. In the very first paragraph, of both documents, although a slight word variation, it is set out that their intentions in this document are to â€Å"declare the causes that impel them to such a course†. The causes for Jefferson may differ in the literal sense, but in essence, they were both writing these documents on behalf of their own people, demanding freedom, whether it be fr om the tyrannical rule of King George, or the tyrannical rule of man. In the first line of the second paragraph, the original copy read, â€Å"We hold these truths to be self evident, that all men are created equal†, while Stanton’s copy read â€Å"that all men and women are created equal. As normal as that sentence may sound now, back in 1884, it was a controversial proclamation. The next significant change that was made was the omission of the words â€Å"among men† in the line, â€Å"to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men†. Stanton believed that males only should no longer run the government. It was time for women to gain the right to political power as well. The final notable change was in the concluding sentences before the grievances were listed. Stanton changed the original, from labeling the Colonies, as the ones who have suffered in the hands of Great Britain’s King, to read it was â€Å"the patient sufferance of th e women under this government†. By making this change it is easy to see the irony that this American government, which the people created to escape the tyrannical rule of Great Britain, was the same government that was imposing its’ own tyrannical rule over women. Like the Declaration of 1776, Stanton’s version of the Declaration included a list of women’s grievances as well. A brief statement, not found on the one 1776 document introduced the list. The statement read as follows, â€Å"The history of mankind is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations on the part of man toward woman, having in direct object the establishment of an absolute tyranny over her.† She then went into the list of the specifics, which included: Women not being allowed to vote, married women being dead in the eyes of the law and having no property rights, women having to submit to laws they had no choice in, and husbands having legal power and responsibility for their w ives to the extent that could imprison or beat them. These were just among the few of the eighteen grievances that were listed. I think that what Stanton was trying to point out was that these practices of mistreatment were considered to be the norm, not but 70 years after the new, idealistic democratic American Government was formed. That in essence, women were fighting for that same thing that the forefathers of our country were fighting for when they wrote the Declaration of Independence, freedom and equality. The next speech I will analyze is â€Å"Home Life†, which is a speech Stanton gave on marriage and divorce. In this speech that Stanton delivered during lecture tours in the 1870’s, she speaks of morality, motherhood, and the shaping of children’s character (Dubois 131). She touched on the subject of the role that religion plays in keeping women oppressed. This controversial belief would eventually be the cause of Stanton losing many followers. â€Å"Home life† starts off by talking about the problem at hand, â€Å"whether a man and woman are equal, joint heirs to all the richness and joy or earth and Heaven, or whether they were eternally ordained, one to be sovereign, the other slave†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (DuBois 132). Ultimately, this is the same problem that she addressed in the â€Å"Declaration of Sentiments† speech. She just says it in a much more realistic, almost disturbing, way. She is able to do this because the movement was no longer new. People were used to hearing about women’s oppression, and Stanton had to come up with new ways of people to see it for the cruel injustice that it was. One problem I see in comparing it to that of slavery is that many people of this day and age did not see slavery as wrong, therefore, by comparing to treatment of women to slavery, they may not see the treatment of women as subordinates as wrong either. The main issue that she addressed in the speech was dealing wi th the topic of marriage. She offers a very valid reason why, despite all the progress they have made thus far, their still is no equality of women in the church and state, because â€Å"men are not ready to recognize it in the home†. What she means is that by men giving into the women’s desire to gain political equality, it will thus cause them to demand more control in home life as well. Men feared this, and women yearned for it. Stanton recognized that women were being oppressed in all aspects of their lives, and that the right to vote would ultimately be the cure to all their problems, because it would lead o political liberation, which would lead to domestic liberation. Stanton argues in this speech that there needs to be a reform on whether or not marriage need be an indissoluble tie. She says that â€Å"from a woman’s standpoint, I see that marriage as an indissoluble tie is slavery for women, because law, religion, and public sentiment all combine under this relation, whatever it may be and there is no other human slavery that knows such depths of dedregation as a wife chained to a man whom she neither loves nor respects†. This to me was the most powerful part of the speech. She is making an appeal to all the women who are in a marriage in which they are unhappy, mistreated, abused, and felt they had no way out. She was putting into words what so many women of that time were feeling, helplessness. Still there was the concern that marriage was a sacred contract of the church. She addresses that concern with that statement that â€Å"the bible can be quoted on both sides†. Also she addressed the concern that marriage is a civil contract not to be broken. She raises the point that if marriage truly were a civil contract â€Å"it should be subject to the laws of all other contracts, carefully made, the parties of age, and all agreements faithfully observed. She pointed out, that on the contrary to the aforesaid, marriage is often enter into boy boys and girls twelve and fourteen years of age, without legal consent of their parents. In this speech, Stanton is very effective at addressing any doubts or questions the audience may have, without them ever having to question her. It was this ability to predict possible reasons for opposition that made her such a prominent speaker and leader in the women’s movement. In the end of this speech, she makes a final plea, that when marriage is based more on equality, then a â€Å"nobler type of manhood and womanhood will glorify the race!† This here, is great example of her attempt to widen the scope of the women’s movement, by suggesting that the equality of women will have a immense impact on all of mankind, not just women. .u18f231b4d37a72c9429e5e583715b5a2 , .u18f231b4d37a72c9429e5e583715b5a2 .postImageUrl , .u18f231b4d37a72c9429e5e583715b5a2 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u18f231b4d37a72c9429e5e583715b5a2 , .u18f231b4d37a72c9429e5e583715b5a2:hover , .u18f231b4d37a72c9429e5e583715b5a2:visited , .u18f231b4d37a72c9429e5e583715b5a2:active { border:0!important; } .u18f231b4d37a72c9429e5e583715b5a2 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u18f231b4d37a72c9429e5e583715b5a2 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u18f231b4d37a72c9429e5e583715b5a2:active , .u18f231b4d37a72c9429e5e583715b5a2:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u18f231b4d37a72c9429e5e583715b5a2 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u18f231b4d37a72c9429e5e583715b5a2 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u18f231b4d37a72c9429e5e583715b5a2 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u18f231b4d37a72c9429e5e583715b5a2 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u18f231b4d37a72c9429e5e583715b5a2:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u18f231b4d37a72c9429e5e583715b5a2 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u18f231b4d37a72c9429e5e583715b5a2 .u18f231b4d37a72c9429e5e583715b5a2-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u18f231b4d37a72c9429e5e583715b5a2:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Elderly Drivers EssayThe final speech that we will be looking at, which many consider to be one of the most moving statements of feminism, is titled â€Å"The Solitude of Self†(DuBois 246). The message of this speech was a demand for woman’s absolute self-reliance taking into account physical, emotional, financial, political, intellectual, and legal independence. Stanton argued that women must be free to take responsibility for their own lives. This speech differed greatly from many other of the speeches that she delivered, including the two that I talked about in this paper. Instead of inspiring her audience in an optimistic manner, in spoke less-then-optimistic tones about the essential isolation of each individual. She claimed that women were more vulnerable than men were because women were less prepared to defend themselves, nor were they expected to. However, according to Stanton, both sexes shared the same existential fate. No matter what laws were passes, no matter what reforms were established individuals would still be responsible for their unique and alone self. She begins the speech with the opening line â€Å"The point I wish plainly to bring before you†¦is the individuality of each human soul†. She goes on to talk about the â€Å"awful solitude† that all individuals, especially women have had to endure over the course of their life, especially during: childhood, marriage, childbirth, widowhood, old age, poverty, catastrophe, and death. She also speaks of the importance of education in this speech. She believes that women need to be properly educated, because women need not be dependent on no one but themselves. It is in the course of this discussion that Stanton acknowledges that not all women prefer independence, some prefer â€Å"to lean, to be protected and supported†. She says that regardless of what the woman desires, she must know how to and be able to support herself, because truly all people are alone in this world. Stanton also used the political implications of self-sovereignty to counter-act the claim that men, could use their ability to vote and make laws, to act on the behalf of women. Acc ording to Stanton beliefs, no one could represent anyone else but themselves. Elizabeth Cady Stanton was a pioneer in the modern quest for women’s rights. She is one of the few women whose impact on the shaping of America has been generally acknowledged, and rightfully so. Her social vision was to liberate society from false perceptions, outdated customs, unjust laws and false religious doctrines. Through analysis of three of Stanton’s speeches all these visions became quite clear. Unfortunately, Stanton did not live long enough to see her ultimate goal attained, the end to women’s suffrage, it is cleat to me that it was the rhetoric of Stanton’s speeches that advanced the movement to where it is today. BibliographyBanner, Lois W. Elizabeth Cady Stanton, A Radical for Women’s Rights. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1980. DuBois, Ellen, ed. Elizabeth Cady Stanton/Susan B. Anthony: Correspondence, Writings, Speeches. NY: SchockenBooks, 1981. Foss, Sonja. Rhetorical Criticism: Exploration and Practice. Illinois: Waveland Press, 1989. Gurko, Miriam. The Ladies of Seneca Falls: The Birth ofThe Women’s Rights Movement. NY: MacMillan Publishing Company, 1974. Wood, Julia. Gendered Lives. NY: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1999. American History

Monday, November 25, 2019

Picking Your Perfect Title

Picking Your Perfect Title Picking Your Perfect Title Picking Your Perfect Title By Daniel Scocco Picking a title can often be the hardest part of a writing project. Sometimes the title just comes to you, but more often than not, you have to put quite a bit of work into finding just the right one. You may even have to sift through several titles before you find one that sits well with you. Here are a few suggestions to try: 1. Mad Libs Think of a couple adjectives, nouns and verbs that describe your story. Write them all down on a sheet of paper and combine them into different phrases. Sometimes you can pick up on a title that works. 2. Pick a Part Look for an important turning point in your novel or just focus on the climax. Describe this event on paper. Pick out the words or phrases that stand out to you in your description. Mix and match these words to see what works for you. 3. Live by Example Pick out novels or short stories that run in the same genre as your project. Study the titles and how they relate to the story as a whole. Then, look at your project as a whole. Think of the theme or overall message of your book. Write down some words that go along with your theme and work them to see if you can find a fitting title. 4. Go for the Obscure Avoid the obvious â€Å"The† titles like â€Å"The Pink Slipper† or â€Å"The Brown Dog.† Look for slight recurring themes or undercurrents in your novel and try naming your novel after those subtle nuances. JK Rowling, author of the Harry Potter series, is a genius with titles. The titles, especially the Half-Blood Prince, all highlight under-riding themes that later play a large role in the series as a whole. 5. Appeal to the Higher Poets usually have a way of weaving words in a beautiful tapestry of art that put prose writers to shame. Read some famous poetry and write down words and phrases that stick out to you. Song lyrics often have the same effect. You can find some powerful titles by mixing, matching and combining words from powerful lyrics. 6. A Writer’s Best Friend Consult your thesaurus and look up synonyms for commonly occurring words in your novel. Write down as many synonyms as you can to try and get a fresh point of view on an event in your novel. Look up these synonyms in the dictionary to get a better understanding of their meaning. Use different words in context to find a combination that you like. 7. Super Easy Way Type â€Å"title generator† into Google and see what pops up. There are several websites that will either have you type in a couple descriptive words and scramble them for you or they’ll just generate some random titles for a variety of genres. Some, like, just generate extremely random and funny titles. Mostly, these titles are just good for a laugh, like â€Å"Pants ride the Bus,† but you may actually be able to find something that works with your project. I hope these suggestions make the arduous process of title-finding a little easier. Good luck! Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Style category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Program vs. Programme"Wracking" or "Racking" Your Brain?Captain vs. Master

Friday, November 22, 2019

Personal Development Plan for Strategic Managers Essay

Personal Development Plan for Strategic Managers - Essay Example The paper tells that SWOT analysis was developed by Albert Humphrey during the 60’s and the 70’s a result of a project aimed at identifying the causes behind planning failure of corporations. SWOT analysis is defined as â€Å"a strategic planning tool used to evaluate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats involved n a project or in a business venture†. SWOT analysis help in identifying both, internal and external, factors influencing the performance of the organization and had proved to be quite helpful for many organizations in scenario planning. Moreover, it provides an overview of the present situation and where the organization stands in the market, which is very useful in the decision making process. That being said, SWOT analysis is also used to perform self-analysis in order to obtain a better understanding of oneself with reference to career. It does not only help in identifying ones strengths and weaknesses but also points out the talents of a person on the basis of which decisions related to career can be made. A personal SWOT analysis is performed in exactly the same manner as the one performed for business except that the person, whom the analysis concerns, must perform it him or herself and honestly provide all the information. It is more of an introspective report that allows a person to look deeper in self. Keeping all these points in mind, the researcher performed the SWOT analysis on himself. ... It is more of an introspective report that allows a person to look deeper in self. Keeping all these points in mind, I performed the SWOT analysis on myself and following are the results: Strengths Double Bachelors – The two most desired degrees in computer science are of BSc (Hons): Computer Science and BCS (Bachelors of Computer Science. Often students are confused about which degree to get of the two. I have both these degrees, which give me an edge over most graduates of computer science. Moreover, I am also a Microsoft Certified System Administrator. All these skills have equipped me with the skills required to survive in the industry of computer science. Multiple Work Experience – I have work experience in different industries like food, banking, and healthcare. I have been involved in customer services for a while for different companies and so I have extensive experience in the field. Moreover, I have worked in different regions like Abuja, Nigeria, and differen t parts of England which has given me knowledge of different cultures, increasing my ability to understand difference in customer behavior. I also have experience in the field of marketing. Leadership and Communication Skills – I have worked as a leader of many different teams in the past and have also played the role of a motivator in the teams. I have supervised employees at different place, which has improved my leadership and communications skills. I do not only have leadership skills but also know how to work under someone else’s leadership for which I have been rewarded with the award for best team member at BLOSSOM. Ambitious, Motivated, and Multi-interested – I have always been very ambitious which is why I have double bachelors. I’m eager to learn new things and have a

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Sampling Plans Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Sampling Plans - Essay Example In this type of sampling the population will be numbered and thus a person to participate in the research will be chosen after every given interval. The method is used because different healthcare providers are going to be considered and thus in each of those groups, a few people will be selected randomly for study (Sharp, Peters, & Howard, 2002). In this study any healthcare provider, be it nurses, doctors, health insurance providers will is eligible for participating in the study. An educational forum will be called from which the groups will be identified and a number of people selected from each group. A total of 5 people will be used for each group or category of healthcare providers who will be available. The seminar or workshop should bring together many people and this will make it easier to get the participants. In protecting the participants, an independent study will be carried out to ascertain the risks and benefits of the study on the population before the study can begin. The participants will be asked to give consent before being selected for participation and confidentiality will be maintained at all times as no names or personal details of the participant will be mentioned. In this study the sampling design to be used will be simple random sampling in which hospitals will be identified in the whole country. After being identified, they will be categorized on the basis of counties and thus five hospitals will be selected for study in each of the counties across the nation. In the county, the total number of hospitals will be taken however selection will be done after every two hospital of the total number of hospitals selected. All the large and the small in size hospitals will be considered for the study with a total number of 100 hospitals expected to be used in the study. They will only be surveyed such that they will not be invited but the researcher will

Monday, November 18, 2019

Property Law Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Property Law - Case Study Example After the relationship broke down, Ms Oxley claimed that the proceeds of sale of this property should be distributed in equal shares. She argued that as there was no discussion on the financial issues, although she had inferred that the sales proceedings would be equally shared for beneficial ownership. Mr Hiscock appealed that there has been no discussion on intended shares so Ms Oxley's presumption should be displaced. This case shows the extent to which cohabitation could be considered as a condition for equally distributed shares in property being considerably important within property law and analysis of equity and trusts. Trust law falls under the broader topic of property law and family law and relates to wills, trusts and property that are shared or distributed. The importance of this case of Oxley v Hiscock lies in the fact that it shows the limitations applicable in distribution of property or shares even in case of cohabitation or marriage. The case and its judgement provi de insights into the nature of family law particularly in relation to trusts and property share. The proceedings were brought to the court under section 14 of the Trusts of Land and Appointment of Trustees Act 1996. The appeal and the judgement highlight the question of how 'proceeds of property in which an unmarried couple have been living as man and wife should be shared between them when the relationship comes to an end'2. The 3. Facts of the Case The facts of the case could be summarised as follows: Mr Hiscock, the appellant purchased a property at 35 Dickens Close, Hartly, Kent in April 1991 under his name. Mrs. Oxley formerly occupied a house at Dartford as a secure tenant but by September 1987 exercised her rights under Part V of the Housing Act 1985 to acquire this property with a discount of 20,000 she could buy the property for 25,200. At the end of 1990, Mr Hiscock purchased his home in 35 Dickens Close for himself, Mrs Oxley and her children from a previous marriage for a purchase price of 127,000 which was funded by a building society advance, proceeds from sale of 39 Page Close and balance of Mr Hiscock's own savings. Thus some amount of money 61,500 has been obtained from the sale of 39 Page Close the property acquired by Mrs Oxley who was a secure tenant in local authority housing. The property at 39 Page Close was documented as being bought with assistance of funds from Mr Hiscock and purchased under the sole nam e of Mrs Oxley3. Thus Mr Hiscock was definitely associated with interests in the property but although the property 39 Page Close could have been transferred to joint names after a three year period, this was not done and remained in Mrs Oxley's name. After the sale of the property at Page Close for which Mr Hiscock claimed nothing, Mr Hiscock contributed 25,200 to the purchase of 35 Dickens Close and Mrs Oxley contributed the balance, 36,300. Following sale of 35 Dickens Close in 10 years, the proceedings began with the claim that under section 14 of the 1996 Act, there is a declaration that the proceeds of sale of 35 Dickens Road were to be held by Mr Hiscock upon trust for himself and Mrs Oxley, in equal shares; alternatively, in such shares as the court should determine. The judgement was given in favour of Mrs Oxley and Mr Hiscock appealed against the decision. 4. The Issues of the Case (Consequences of the Law) The

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Differences Between Linear Block And Convolutional Codes Computer Science Essay

Differences Between Linear Block And Convolutional Codes Computer Science Essay Generally the coding theory is the detailed analysis of the properties of the codes and their suitable quality for the identified application. Codes are mainly used in cryptography, error correction , data compression and now a days it is also used for the network coding.this coding generally involves with the linear block codes, convolutional codes, turbo codes respectively. LINEAR BLOCK CODES: In coding theory, the linear block code generally referred as a error correcting code for which the obtained resultant codeword is the linear combination of any two codewords. In simple words, the linear block code possesss the linearity property that is the sum of any two codewords is also a codeword. These linear block codes are divided in to the block odes and convolutional codes, eventhough turbo codes is the combination of these two types. More efficient encoding and decodig algorithms are provided by the linear codes when compared with the other codes. (http:// codes). CONVOLUTIONAL CODES The main principle involved in the convolutional code is the weighted sum of the various input message symbols is the resultant codeword symbol. This resemblance the convolution used in the LTI systems where we find the output of a syatem by knowing the impulse response and the respective input. So hence the output of a convolutional encoder can be obtained by the convolution of the input bits with the states of the convolution encoder registers.( codes). TURBO CODES In 1993, turbo codes are developed which are the class of high performance forward error correction codes and they are also the first practical codes to come nearer to the chgannel capacity for the code rate at which reliable communication is still possible while a specific identified noise level is given. Berrou glavieux and thitimajshima introduced these turbo codes in 1993 in their paper named near Shannon limit error correcting and decoding : turbo codes. Once after the introduction of these parallel turbo codes many other types are discovered which mainly includes repeat accumulate codes, serial versions. Even the conventional FEC systems are also been applied by the iterative turbo decoding methods. ( ) 2. CORE OF THE PAPER 1. PRINCIPLES OF THE LINEAR BLOCK CODES A block code of length n and codewors is said to be a linear(n, k) code if and only if the k dimensional subspace of the vector space is formed by all the codewords of all the n- tuples over GF(2). A linear code of length n and rank K is the linear subspace C with dimension K of the vector space where is the finite field consisting of the q elements. Such tytpe of a code with parameter q is called a q ary code. The code is said to be as binary code or ternary code if and only if q =2 or q=3 respectively. Linear block codes are briefly described by their symbol alphabets (example: binary, ternary) and with parameters (n,m, ) where n is the codeword length in symbols. m is the total number of source symbols which are used for encoding. is the codes minimum hamming distance. Linear block codes are of many types they are: Cyclic codes Repetition codes Parity codes Polynomial codes Reed Solomon codes Algebraic geometric codes Reed muller codes Perfect codes. A. GENERATOR MATRIX AND PARITY CHECK MATRIX Since the linear codes could be considered as a linear subspace C of , so any codeword C can be represented as a linear combination of a set of basis vectors such that , C= ++.= mG Where G is the generator matrix and m is the message. B. THEORITICAL CONCEPTS: As linear subspace of , the span of the minimal set of codewords can be represented by the entire code word C. These obtained codewords are collected and combined in the rows of the matrix G known as generator matrix for the code C. Theoretically, it is the standard form of is given as G=(/A), where is the kk identity matrix and A is k(n-k) matrix. A check matrix is defined as the matrix which represents the linear function H: whose kernel is C. The generating matrix G in standard form, G=(/A), with C as a code then H=(/) is a check matrix for C. C .HAMMING CODES Hamming codes are the first codes developed for the purpose of the error correction. These are widely used in digital communication systems. For any positive integer r>=2, there exists a [-r-1,3] hamming code. Example: given the following generator matrix and parity check matrix, the linear block code is [7,4,3] hamming code. G= , D. HADAMARD CODE Hadamard codes is capable of correcting many errors and is a [, r,] linear code. Hadamard code has minimum distance and therefore can correct -1 errors. Example  : The linear block code with the following generator matrix is a [8,3,4]2 Hadamard code: E..MERITS: Linear codes are the very prominent calss of the error correcting codes. It generally includes the simple description, easy procedure for encoding, nice properties, conceptually easy decoding. If C is a linear code then the minimum distance d(c) is easy to compute. Linear codes possesss simple specifications. To specify the (n,k) linear code it is sufficient to list K linearly independent codewords where as for the non linear code words generally we have to represent with all the code words. The most important linear block codes are: Hamming codes, cyclic codes, reed Solomon codes, BCH codes, LDPC codes, turbo codes respectively. F. DEMERITS: The main drawback of the hamming code is that it has the fixed hamming distance and also it is very difficult to implement coders for large block. The detection of two error bits and ability to correct the single errored bit can be obtained from the fixed hamming distance.if we choose a code which generally allows the implementor to select the desired hamming distance will be useful or beneficial. Hammer coder practical largest possible allows for codewords of nearly 31bits only. G. APPLICATIONS (1) These linear block properties are used in many applications. Trellis shaping is generated by using the syndrome coset uniqueness property of linear block codes. (2) these are also used in sensor networks for distributed sourcecoding. (3)by using these codes phase shift can be easily corrected and detected and also multiple signals can be easily sent from onechannel. (4) some other applications include mobile phone systems which are used in CDMA. (references: William E.ryan and shu lin(2009) channel codes: classical and modern, Cambridge university press.,Thomas M. corer and joy A. Thomas(1991) elements of information theory john wiley and sons). 2.PRINCIPLES OF CONVOLUTIONAL CODES Convolutional codes comes under a category of error correction codes in which an n bit symbol consists of each m bit information symbol to be encoded where coderate is m/n (n>=m) and the transformation acts as a function of the last K information symbols, here the constraint lenghht of the code is denoted by K. A. .Convolutional encoder To encode data convolutinoally, we begin with K memory reegisters holding one input bit each. Until other value specified , the 0 is the initial value af all memory registers. The encoder includes n-modulo 2 adders( it can be put effort with single Boolean XOR gate ) and n generator polynomials- each adder has one of them. The left most register is feded with the an input bit m. By using those existing values in the remaining registers and the respective generatot polynomials the n bits are the encoder outputs. By bit shifting all register values to their right and have to wait for its next input input bit. The encoder continues output until all registers have returned to the zero state if there are no remaining input bits. The below figure shows the rate 1/3 of the encoder with k value (constraint length) of 3. And also the generator polynomials are =(1,1,1), =(0,1,1) and =(1,0,1) The calculation of the output bits are as follows n1 = m1 + m0 + m-1 n2 = m0 + m-1 n3 = m1 + m-1. Img.1. Rate 1/3 non-recursive, non-systematic convolutional encoder with constraint length 3. B. RECURSIVE AND NON RECURSIVE CODES The above figure shows the encoder where as the below one shows the recursive one respectively, Rate 1/2 recursive, systematic convolutional encoder with constraint length 4. It can be easily observed that the input which is encoded is included in the output sequence also. These codes are generally called as systematic. The another type of codes are generally called as non systematic codes. Generally the systematic codes are always recursive codes where as the non systematic codes are always non recursive codes. The name convolutional encoder came for it because it carry out a convolution of the input stream with the encoders impulse responses. = Where x is an input sequence, is an output sequence from output j and which is the impulse response of the output j. The discrete lineaqr time invariant system is also called as a convolutional encoder. The own transfer function itself describes the output of an encoder. The transfer function is connected by the impulse response through z transform. + (Z)= +, (Z)=1+. The second order transfer functions are: (z)= We Define m by Where for any rational functional, we define it as Where m is the maximum polynomial degrees of the . And the constraint length is defined as . C.TRELLIS DIAGRAM A convolutional encoder is also referred as finite state machine. An encoder with n binary cells produce states. Just imagine the encoder which is shown in figure 1 has 1 in left memory cell(m0) in right one. We will refer such a stete as 10. By considering input bit the encoder at the next turn can convert either to 11 state or 01 state or 01 state. from the below figure we get rhe idea of decoding if the received sequence doesnot suit this graph then it errors can be obtained and we should select closest correct sequence. All transitions which are possible are shown as below: The red line is the path of the trellis. The lines their indicate transitions where the dotted lines are 1 input and the proper lines rae 0 input. The path here represents an actual encoded sequence. One of the path is shown in red colour as an example. The figure provides an idea about the decoding. D.FREE DISTANCE AND THE ERROR DISTANCE The minimum distance between the different encoded sequences is called as the free distance. The number of errors that can be corrected by code is given as correcting capability. It is given as correcting capability. It is given as, F. DECODING CONVOLUTIONAL CODES Decoding the convolutional codes can be done by several algorithms . thye vviterbi algorithm is universally used for relatively small values of K as it is highly parallelizable and it also provides maximum likelihood performance. By using SIMD instruction set the viterbi decoders are easy to implement the software on cpu and also in VLSI hardware. Fano algorithm is the best one among the several sequential decoding algorithms through which the longer constraint lenght codes re more practically decoded. Unlike viterbi decoding sequential decoding is not have maximum probability but there will be the slight incresase in the complexity with their constraint lengfht. Giving the chance to us the long , short constraint Length codes. In early 1970s these codes are used in the pionner program in Jupiter and Saturn but made it shorter, these viterbi decoded codes, often connecyed with large reed Solomon error correction codes which generally steeps the complete bit error rate curve and it also produces the very low residual undetected error rates. These both sequential and viterbi decoding algorithm gives the hard decisions..The codeword which is most likely formed by the using the soft output viterbi algorithm an appropriate confidence measure can be added to each bit in use with the BCJR algorithm the maximum a posterior(MAP ) Soft decisions can be obtained. G. POPULAR CONVOLUTIONAL CODES The viterbi decoded convolutiona;l codes is used for the voyagev program which has a constraint length of K=7, and also rate=1/2. The more powerful codes are produced by the longer constraint lengths but the viterbi algorithm complexity increases exponentially with respect to the constraint lengths , controlling these more powerful codes to deep space machines where the extra performance increases decoder complexity. Cassine probe, mars path finder, mars exploration rover to Saturn use of K=15 AND RATE OF 1/6, 2DB Bbetter than the simplex k=7, code at a rate of 256* in decoding complexity iss performed by this code. H. MERITS To correct the errors in noisy channels these convolutional codes are frequently used. These convolutional codes perform well on very bad conditions also. These convolutional codes are generally used often in satellite communications, mobile telephony and also in voice band modems. Convolutional codes generally gives good results in lower noise environments. Convolutional codes are also used in the voice band modems( v.,32, v.17, v.34) and also in the GSM mobile phones. I. DEMERITS Even though the convolutional encoder has the simplest procedure, decoding of it is very complex task. Convolutional codes cannot provide more protection against noise. J. APPLICATIONS Convolutional codes are used in the number of the applications which aims to achieve reliable data transfer, including radio, mobile communications, digital video communications, satellite communications. By using hard decision code, these codes are implemented in concatenation( example: reed Solomon). These are more efficient. (references: tutorial on convolutional coding and decoding, the online text book: IT, inference and leaving algorithms by david J.C.Mackay). 3. PRINCIPLES OF TURBO CODES By using the block code with convolutional code and also withthe longer constraint length and large block length it is theortically possible to approach the Shannon limit. But this approach became impractical due to the processing power required to decode. By using the recursive coders and iterative soft decoders the turbo codes overcome this drawback. The main aim of the recursive coder is to make the convolutional codes with shorter constraint lengths which appears as a large constraint length of a block codes and iterative soft decoder efficiently improves the estimation of the obtained message. The below shown figure generally gives the encoder for implementation which describes a clasiical encoder which provides the general design of the turbo codes. The 3 bits of the subblock can be sended by using this encoder implementation. The m-bit block of payload data is in the first subblock. The n/2 parity bits for a well known permutation includes in the 3rd subblock which is once aga in computed with the RSC code. The total number of bits in the code are . Interleaver is a device which generally carry outb the permutation of the payload data. This turbo code encoder includes two RSC codes (identical) , , as shown in the figure. By using the concatenation scheme these are connected to each othere which is reffered as parallel concatenation. Here M acts as a memory register. The input bits are forced to appear in different sequences by the dealy line and interleaver. The input sequence appears at both outputs after completion of first iteration [, , ] because of the encoders systematic nature. = = DECODER The serial connection of two elementary decoders is said to be a decoder. Generally decoder only operates on the lower speed( ) , thus it is planned for the encoder and is for encoder. The produces delays and also hold a soft decision. Where as produces delay respectively. The error bursts which are coming from the output are scattered by the interleaver whicvh is installed between between the two decoders. Here DI refers to demultiplexing and insertion module here it acts as a switch, it generally redirects input bits to once and to at another. It feeds both , inputs with padding bits( zeroes) in off state. While considering a memory less AWGN channel and assumption is made that at the iteration, the decoder receives a pair of random variables. =(-1)+, =2(-1)+ . Here is a bit from output of encoder and , are independent noise components consists of same produces a soft decision ie; ) = and pass it to the . generally referred as logarithm of likelihood ratio. The posterior probability (APP) of bit data is defined as which shows the probability of explaining a received bit as i. But where as produces a hard decision which is a decoded bit. Viterbi algorithm is unappropiate to calculate APP, it is not used in a BCJR algorithm is used but where as for viterbi algorithm is an appropriate one. MERITS Up to now, we know so many practical error correction methods but turbo codes and low density parity check codes come very close to approach the Shannon limit , which is the theoretical limit of maximum transfer reate of information over a noisy channel. Turbo codes increases data rate with out increasing the transmitted power, or to transmit at a certain data rate they are used to decrease the amount of the power. It generally produces the best performance results pof the throughput and latency. DEMERITS Its main disadavantage is the complexity of the relative high decoding. It also has relatively high latency, which is not suitable for some applications. It is also not verymuch useful for the satellites why because the latency is produced by the transmission distance due to the limited speed of the light. These algorithms are complex in nature. APPLICATIONS 3G and 4G mobile telephony standards uses turbo codes widely. Examples: HSPA and LTE . Used in media FLO and QUALCOMM Turbo codes are also useful in NASA missions such as mars re connaissance orbiter which is another option to RS- viterbi codes. IEEE802.16 generally uses the block turbo coding and CTC(WIMAX) a wireless metropolitan standard. Turbo codes are used in the designs of the digital communication systems and also in detection, demodulation. Turbo codes in the field of the error correcting codes represents a significant development. The cable transmission, short distance communications or data storage are the future applications of the turbo codes. (references: Berrou, claude; glavieux, alian , punva, near Shannon limit error- correcting, Berrou, claude, the ten years old turbo codes are entering in to the service, france). 4. CRITICAL COMPARISION LINEAR BLOCK CODES AND CONVOLUTIONAL CODES: Convolutional codes have a regular, natural, trellis structure which are useful in the implementation of the viterbi algorithm. Where as the linear block codes have a natural but it has minimal trellis structure. In both convolutional codes and linear block codes, the estimation of viterbi algorithm can be done by number of trellis edge symbol per encoded bit. Generally convolutional codes does not provide more protection against noise than the linear block codes. Convolutional codes offers greater simplicity of implementation over a linear block codes in many cases. Convolutional codes may not have minimal trellis representation but where as the linear block codes has the minimal trellis structure. The main differences between the linear block codes and convolutional codes is that a system which is using the block codes will transmits the k data bits and then transmits the n-k reductant bits. Where as the system which uses the convolutionla codes produces n coded bits from k data bits and the codeword need not contain unaltered k data bits. The main difference between the convolutional encoder and the block encoder is that the block code related not only to the current , but also on the previous (u) number of fixed information blocks ,, That is given as, =++.. With out the memory a linear block code is merely a convolutional code. The theory of the linear block codes seems to be degenerate of the theory of the convolutional codes, the usual approach of the convolutional codes is to note the small and fixed values of n and k and also the varying values of . TURBO CODES V/S CONVOLUTIONAL CODES: There are some differences between the behaviour of turbo codes and the convolutional codes. As we know that the performance of the convolutional codes imcreases with the increasing constraint length( code complexity). This is not for the turbo codes where the best codes of the turbo codes have the small constraint lengths . With decreasing code rate the performance of the convolutional codes doesnot improve significantly. Where as for the turbo codes even for the lower coding rates it achieves a very significant coding gain. While seeing from the implementation point of view, soft output encoders and recursive decoders are essential in turbo code schemes, where as they are not that much essential in convolutional codes excluding the concatenated configuration. Criteria Convolutional codes turbo codes Larger constraint length good bad Lower coding rate indifferent good Larger free distance good indifferent Soft output decoders indiffernt good Recursive encoders Indifferent good Both the linear block codes and convolutional codes are most frequently used type codes in the practice of enginnering for the designing of the most useful codes. TURBO VS LINEAR BLOCK CODES: The turbo codes are the hybrid model of the both the linear block codes and the convolutional codes respectively. The linear block codes used in the turbo codes instead of the convolutional codes to form a turbo product code(TPC). Two hamming codes are concatenated serially with the absence of an interleaver in between them. They can perfoem well in low SNR and can be formed by any block code. The convolutional codes used in the turbo codes usually forms a parallel concatenated convolutional code(PCCC) which have the small constraint length. They are systematic. 5. SIMULATION RESULTS The simulation results of linear block codes are as follows : The dual adaptive importance sampling (DAIS) technique evaluates the word and bit error rates of linear block codes down to extreme low values. (reference: Slin and D. Costello, error correction coding : fundamentals and applications). T,he simulation of the convolutional codes are as follows: Simulations with two recursive , equal convolutional codes with an interleaver whose length is 400 and k=50, this generally provides manufacturer interoperability, because this technique achieves the improvements which is over 3.5 dB respectively over the trellis codification modulation. (reference:Concatened trellis/reed Solomon coding in DMT systems- Kschischarg). The simulation results of the turbo codes are as follows: At a rate of R=1/2 the simulation results of the turbo codes are obtained. Here length of the data block is 400 bits( assumption) and also a MAP decoder used in the simulation. From the results it is observed that for the first few iterations yield the most significant improvements in BER for any given value of . After that the results appear to converge on to a BER for each value of . ( reference: Andersen JD and zyablov vv, interleaver design for turbo coding). 6. CONCLUSION So, hence in this research paper we have discussed the principles, applications, merits and demerits of the linear block codes, convolutional codes, turbo codes respectively. We also discussed the main differences between the block codes, convolutional codes, turbo codes and presented their respective simulation results. Personally, by doing this research i learned a lot on this coding theory and also came to know the importance of these codes in the present world. The future applications of these codes are to provide the substantial improvements in communication for the satellites. 7. REFERNCES (1) code tables: bounds on the parameters of various types of the codes. (2) q- ary code generator program. (3) error correcting codes (ECC) page (4) Wikipedia articles in corporating text from the federal standarad convolutional codes with a 1037c. (5) turbo decoding as an instance of pearls belief propogation algorithm,. (6) IEEE journal on selected areas in communication- Robert J Mackay, David J.C. (7) Turbo equalisation : principles and new results an IEEE paper on communications.

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

E-commerce and the New World Order :: Internet Online Communication Essays

E-commerce and the New World Order INTRODUCTION: Imagine a town with a population of 500 people. Everyone knows each other in person, where gossip and rumors are the daily norms and where the community struggles to survive each day on basic physiological needs (water, food). There’s no form of entertainment, no technological presence, just a local pub down the street, where many people come to drink just to socialize and pass the time. The only news that is important to them is the news within the community. Now imagine the same town, a few decades later, with a growing population. This town has integrated technology into their daily lives. The town can now trade among other communities near by, while aware of the activities of the towns around them, of the country as a whole and of the news that circulates around the globe. It is this economy which greater resembles the economy in which we now live in. This economy is known as the information society, where traditional physical restrictions are now eliminated to the advantage of exploring other cultures and communities across space and time. This economy provides efficient forms of communication while enhancing the knowledge and ability of each individual in its society. In order to relate and comprehend this new economy, and to acknowledge its existence, we must first examine the changes that have taken place, and the benefits and disadvantages that are associated with it. It is by looking at each aspect that we can conclude that a new economy has formed and has impacted the ways we conduct our daily lives. ESSAY NWO: THE NEW WORLD ORDER Imagine a community in the industrial age, where mass production of goods and services are produced, where quality and originality are lost and where the creator/author loses power to control those who uses his/her information. The only news and transactions that circulates and matter within the community are those, which are local. Now imagine the same community where technological innovation has taken over, where computers are the new form of communication, where news that happen from one area of the world greatly affects other areas of the world. Where a wide variety of goods and services are now offered throughout the world, and where transactions and investment occurs at the tip of your fingers in your very own home.

Monday, November 11, 2019

Should tourism be developed further in Kenya?

Where is Kenya? Kenya is in east Africa, and is bordered by countries such as Tanzania Uganda, Ethiopia and Somalia. The longitude of Kenya is 38 degrees and the latitude is 0 degrees. The capital city of Kenya is Nairobi and one of the most important towns is Mombassa. This country is bordered to the east by the Indian Ocean, and is on the equator. Why do tourists visit Kenya? Tourists visit Kenya for many reasons. The two most popular types of holidays are safari holidays and beach holidays. These are the two types of places were tourists go to enjoy their holidays and also the scenery and atmosphere. They also like to look at the way and find out about the traditional ways of life and how they are lived, by this countries people. When tourists go on safari holiday's majority of the tourists sit back, relax and enjoy the hot sunny weather and they vacation in the national parks and stay in the lodges. During this visit they travel in the minibuses to see the beautiful wildlife, which Kenya offers. This is where the famous world animals live, for example; giraffes, leopards, elephants, others include lions, rhinoceros, flamingos' and many others. They also take photographs of the wildlife to keep souvenirs, however tourists may also by souvenirs from the different masaii shops, in villages, in the national parks. Tourists may also do different activities, which the national parts in Kenya offer, like hot air balloon safari, mountain trekking and also investigating famous buildings. The other type of most exotic popular place tourists enjoy is the scenery; hot, clean, golden sandy beaches where the tourists enjoy sun bathing. As the weather is hot, the warm sea is also hot. The sea is used for water sports such as, jet skiing, snorkelling swimming in the sea, lake cruises, and glass bottomed boot rides, where the beautiful shells and tropical fishes can be seen and the coral reef. The place that they stay at includes restaurants and modern hotels. They enjoy themselves at bars, where they provide exotic foods. Sports and activities include playing golf, traditional dances high club, traditional crafts and others. This is where and why tourists visit these two popular exotic places. How developed is Kenya? Here I will explain and give detail of how developed Kenya actually is to begin with Kenya has a lower level of development than Japan. I am going to show this by comparing Kenya to Japan. There is a lot of evidence to show that Kenya is a LEDC country meaning it is a less economically developed country. To begin with I am going to write about the birth rate of Kenya is much higher birth rate of Japan. In a way of good thing, however it may also be a bad thing. The good thing is that many workers can help in the industry, where as, on the other hand the bad thing is that more children will be born and will want to be independent, which would coat a lot of money. The birth rate of Kenya is a vast amount of 38 per thousand and Japan has only 10 per thousand. This means that Kenya has a much higher life expectancy at 50 years, compared to Kenya, which has a life expectancy of 54 years. This basically means that majority of Kenyans' people die at a very young age and for this reason, the death rate of Kenya is an incredible 12 per thousand each year and because Japan has a longer life expectancy, it has only 7 per thousand, in their death rate. This could also mean that many people can die young in Kenya, due to not having a lot of access to safe water of sanitation. I know that this is true because only 49% of Kenyans' people have access to safe water, and Japan on the other hand has a shocking 95%. This can be one of the many reason why' the country Japan has a higher life expectancy as well as less amount of people dying compared to Kenya. Lack of money can also be a problem as the money that the people of Kenya ahs is very less, as they cannot afford to pay for there bills, or the government cannot provide it for them, and that is the reason they have to work for a longer of time, and Japan can provide their people with sufficient amenities, as Japan is a country with less people and is an MEDC country. One other good fact is that the male adult literacy of Kenya is only 86% and female is 70%, where as Japans both male and female adult literacy is a shocking 99%; this clearly can state that once again Japan can afford the money for their people and Kenya cannot. If Kenya could then the adults would have an education, which would enable them to get a better career and a job. It cannot provide all amenities like telephones and TV sets for all its people and Japan can. All the above clearly states that Japan can be dependent on its people and government, afford the money, and therefore is a much more richer MEDC country than Kenya, which places or puts in a LEDC country position. How does Kenya earn money? Kenya exports mainly primary goods which includes tea, coffee and horticulture also known as flour, which has a low value and imports mainly manufactured goods such as industrial machinery, motor vehicles, iron and steal, wheat, and many others which have a high value. This means that Kenya gets very little for its exports but has to pay a lot for its imports. This courses Kenya to have a trade difficult. In 1992 Kenyans trade difficult was ik 1000 million. Kenya has had to borrow money from other countries, which basically means that it is in depth. It also has to pay interest on the loan. All this means that Kenya does not have enough money to spend on hospitals, schools which also means providing education, transport such as trains, busses, and cars, and also tractors. Which would help to develop the country. How does Kenya benefit from tourism? Tourism to Kenya is very important, as it makes a lot of money for the country. Tourism has created many jobs opportunities in Kenya even though some may not be very well educated. Some jobs include people needed to work in hotels as chefs for the tourist's people to eat, waitresses, maids, security guards, cleaners etc that the employees get a good wage and a better standard of living. The more money they earn the more tourism going. People such as tourists pay money to stay in the hotels, which then the hotels need to provide things such as cleaning which then they would have to employ a maid/cleaner, and other activities. In the hotels there are jobs such as the receptionists who check all the tourists in and use the telephone apparently, the maid provides food and service for the tourists and the chef cooks the food. There are also many other jobs like shopkeepers, whom earn money by selling souvenirs. All these jobs provide a better standard of living, as they would earn better wages. By tourists coming it has provided and created jobs for employees. Tourism also provides indirect employment, e. g. : farmers can grow food for the hotels. Tour companies who run the safari holidays need people to work, as there is more people where tourists go for amusements therefore more jobs are created. Other jobs includes bus owners whom take the tourists to visit the spectacular scenery, people whom blow he hot air balloons, which is another attraction and amusements that the tourist like to visit and see, and many others also benefit. I. E. : the government also make money from tourism, as they tax every single person whom owns a job, and earns wages. They also tax the tourists when they come on the holiday when paying towards there flight fare/air port ticket. The tour operators make money from the profits that they charge when the tourist pay for the amusements which also includes hot air balloon safari and souvenir sellers. However tourism to Kenya is very important. This is shown as tourism has employed 40,000 to maintain a proper job. The amount of tourist in 1960 was only 150,000, which has in 1990 risen to 900,000, which is approximately 6 times greater, which also means that tourism has become a very important site. The money earned from tourism in 1960 in US$ was 51. 8 million which also has increased to 467 million, which is 9 times greater, which is equal to half of Kenyans exports. However there is also a very important reason to why Kenya does not make a very large profit. One main reason is that Kenya imports goods from many different MEDC countries such as air conditioning from Canada, or office machines from the USA, Carpets from the UK, etc, which is all provided for the hotels that the tourist stay at. This means that the money, which Kenya earns, leaks out by them paying for unnecessary imported goods payment to foreign owners and co-owners with Kenyans and travel arrangements. It is stated that foreigners earn an estimate of 70% of what the tourist pay for their beach holidays, and 40% of tourist's payments. This in other words means that if Kenya did not make large profits it would be more in depth. What effects has tourism had on different groups of people? Tourism has effected many different groups of people, however the two which has most been effected have been the Masaii people and the Muslim people. The masaii people, have been effected in many reasons, one of which is that they had to leave there home, which now has become an amusement park or national parks and have had t move to th edge of them, without receiving no compensation whatsoever, and that is also another reason why they have had a loss in there grazing land. Theses people have now become a game reserve, they are now not seen as human begins but have become a tourist attraction in life with no self-esteem and they face criticism, and have no rights. Their old homes before hey had to move have now become funfairs and lodges and they have lost all hat they once use to own. Sacred rituals once performed by the masaii people now become old-fashioned shows. Kenyans are becoming second class citizens in there own country, unable to go to the beach encase they spoil the scenery and other things. This is also another reason why the number of tourists increases. But also this can e a good thing as it provides these masaii people with jobs from the national parks. The other main group of people affected is the Muslim culture/ Muslim population of the coast. They now have to live in a different type of society. In Islamic religion women have to wear -long black garments covering there entire body except their eyes, as it is a sin to advertise themselves to men. However tourist find it so hot that when they walk thorough theses kind of people they feel different. The tourists wear such things like bikinis or even go topless, and this is a great disrespect to the Muslim inhabitants. This also influences the youngsters of Kenya to wear such things. They do not always respect traditional culture/clothing. Another point is that the souvenir trade is such damage that can occur to the cultural and religious side. This happens when tourists buy something sacred just because it looks good. Even a tourist to a religious building can cause grief due to inappropriate behaviour or unacceptable dress. Tourism has also lead to the opening of many bars and nightclubs in Muslim areas. This again is a disregard for there culture as alcohol is strictly prohibited. Another point Is that these tourist have also bought with them drugs, and other things like this to Kenya. These tourists lead to thousands of Kenyans turning to prostitution for money, which is another main disrespect to the Muslim society. What effect has tourism had on the environment? Tourism has also had an effect on the environment. The ecosystem in the Savannah grasslands involve hot air balloon safari which makes a lot of loud Noise, which then drives the animals to move out, as they produce such racket and sparks which frightens the animals away. The lodges produce lot of rubbish from the left over food, which the people working there, just throw out, and drop it on the outside places, that those animals that are hunting smell the smell, and come to eat such leftovers. This food can be poison and then can kill the poor animals, and for this reasons the animals can become scarce, as they would die out easily. The other reason is the minibuses, which tour the tourists. The tourists visiting the safari places go to see animals in their natural habitats and open environments. Tourists have a huge impact on the animals that they go to see. Tourists are driven around the parks in specially adapted minibuses with open tops so that they can view and photograph the animals. These minibuses want there tourists to be pleased and happy therefore take them to see the animals close and about forty minibuses go and do this each day, around one animal. Because of this the animals are disturbed and harassed and the flashes of the camera also scare away the animals. The drivers not thinking twice pass over the grassland, which gradually wears away, increasing soil erosion and become roads. This means that the vegetation needed for the animals is reduced as they have no fresh grass to eat, which then would make them hungry, and as we know hunger can kill. Also those minibuses tours use the roads in such a way that by them speeding, without them knowing they blow the dust in the air which means that the air would become polluted very quickly, and this could also cause damage to the animals and people of Kenya and also to the environment. Also Another main point is that the coral reef ecosystem is also damaged. This is done in several different ways. Firstly the tourist visit these places and tend to take and pick shells and rocks nd other things from the sea to take as souvenirs, and if each tourist did this then they would destroy the coral reef completely. They tend to stand in the coral reef and their weight and by them stepping on it, it can also cause wreck the coral reef. The tour guides try to impress the tourist by placing anchors in the coral reef, and because of this daily invasion the coral reef would gradually wear out and turn into rubble and ruins. Are there any better ways of developing tourism in Kenya? There are many different ways that would be better ways to develop tourism in Kenya. Firstly let me explain what sustainable development means. This means that it is a progress that can continue year after year and does not waste resources, it improves the quality of life of people and does not damage the quality of life, and that it does not harm the environment either now or in the future. There are many reasons, which would make mass tourism more sustainable For example you should allow people to continue living there traditional ways of life instead of threatening or disrupting there lives, therefore those tourists should respect and wear clothing which is suitable for the masaii people and Muslim culture so no harm is caused. . They should improve people's lives and benefit the local community e. g. schools and healthcare, instead of making large profits for foreign firms while the local people live on poverty. They could do this by giving some money to the community instead of keeping it all to themselves, they should protect the environment and not damage or destroy the natural environment by not placing so many vehicles in one place at one time, or driving on top of the grass. They should also allow local people to use their own skill and knowledge instead of relying on the skill and knowledge of feign expertise. There are different groups of people that could do different things to improve tourism in Kenya; example travel companies could chose destinations that are not overcrowded. They should choose tour operators who are supportive to ecosystem. This way the grasslands and the animals would not get disturbed as much, as they would have less amount of people bothering them. They could also make booklets to inform the tourists about the coral reef, and not to damage it, and to wear appropriate clothing, so that they know before hand, instead of knowing when they reach Kenya. This way at least the people would have a bit of respect for the Kenyan people. The government can have laws such as that those drivers whom pass over the grassland they should be fined or their license taken away from them. They should take license away for those whom are tour guides and allow the tourists to damage its coral reef. They should all agree to a contact which includes rules and regulations. The esonki conservation area is on the edge of the Ambseli national parks and during the rainy season much of ambselies wildlife passes through. By using such service tourists can stay in luxurious safari tents, with showers, flush toilets, and solar powered electric lights, it is all low impact and can be removable, which means that it does not cause any damage to the environment, tourist can enjoy real African experience with truly wild animals. It is all run by the masaii. There are twenty-six masaii trained as rangers. They work in camp, cooking and serving meals, on building roads. The masaii can rule themselves without being told what to do. They get a rent fee for the conservation area, an entrance fee from each tourist and a fee for every tourist for every night that they stay. The profits that they make have paid for a local school and healthcare, and also many other things for the community. Tourists could wear appropriate clothing, which would not effect nor offend the Muslim culture. In conclusion I believe that yes tourism should be developed further in Kenya, by using and making an ecosystem, that does not harm the environment, nor effect its people. I do not think that Kenya can achieve economic development without tourism, as it will earn less money jus from exporting tea and coffee. Tourists should respect peoples peace, privacy a and lands this would allow the Kenyans to live life as peacefully as they want, and does not destroy there traditional ways of life as it would be more crucial for them to live a better standard of living if they did not get tourists pushing them about, and telling them what to do. They should remember that they are a guest and behave accordingly, as this would make them aware that they do not have the right to do things that would effect the people around there lives. They should respect religious places and do not touch religious objects. This would also make them have that significance that it does not belong to them and they should not touch sacred souvenirs even though that would affect the souvenir shopkeepers. They should follow all rules and regulations regarding protected areas for wildlife, as this would make the animals more protected to the environment and live there life according to there habitats and do not have to be scared of living in there own areas. They should dress appropriately, as this would reduce the amount of prostitution and would also show respect o the people of Kenya. They should not touch, chase or harass animals or marine life, for the reason mentioned before. They should also leave plants and marine life to flourish in their natural environment as this would improve Kenya's scenery and would become better food for the animals. They should also not try to waste water as this would be a useful recourse and would not waste a lot of Kenya's money. Switch off lights and air conditioning if you go out which once again would be supporting the local economy. They should ask before taking photographs as this would be another respectful thing for Kenya and would not scare away the animals because of there flash. All the above-mentioned things are a code of conduct which tourist should keep in mind when visiting Kenya.

Saturday, November 9, 2019

“If We Must Die” by Claude Mckay, We Must Fight!! Essay Example

â€Å"If We Must Die† by Claude Mckay, We Must Fight!! Essay Example â€Å"If We Must Die† by Claude Mckay, We Must Fight!! Essay â€Å"If We Must Die† by Claude Mckay, We Must Fight!! Essay Charles Bailey â€Å"If We Must Die† by Claude McKay, we must fight!! The poem â€Å"If We Must Die, by Claude McKay† is about a certain group of people who are hated and hunted by another group of others. I believe that the poet has made this poem to speak to his fellow African-Americans, who are being mistreated by the white slave owners. The speaker tells his people not to go easily, but rather fight as long as possible and don’t ever give up before they are killed. The poet believes that the worst things that these people can do is giving up and stop trying; he wants them to fight until the very end of their lives. Right from the beginning of the poem the speaker reiterates the title of the poem and the message that he is trying to convey. â€Å"If we must die, let it not be like hogs hunted and penned in an inglorious spot while round us bark the mad and hungry dogs† (1-3). This passage instills the thought in our minds that these people are being hunted and suppressed by others. The speaker knows that the end inevitable, but for himself and others he does not want them to give up. Being corned by hungry dogs should not put fear into their souls, but rather entice them to fight back even more. Following the lines from before, the speaker establishes the same message as before. He states that letting the hunters of these people kill them in vain is not an option; they were not put on this earth to die for nothing. â€Å"If we must die, O let us nobly die/ so that our precious blood may not be shed in vain† (5-7). The speaker states his opinion of the situation very clearly; he wants none of them to believe that they are dying for nothing. African-Americans at the time that this poem was made were dealing with horrible conditions from their white suppressers. The speaker is trying to convey to his fellow African-Americans that letting the white man dominate them completely is the worst thing that they can do, not just for themselves but also all of those who will come after them. He wants them to know that they are fighting for the greater cause of the whole African-American race. Next he states that monsters that do this horrible deed to them will have to honor them when dead. He believes that fighting back and not giving up will make them honor them, and not think that they were nothing. Then even the monsters that we defy shall be constrained to honor us though dead! O kinsmen! We must meet the common foe! † (7-9). The speaker strongly believes that fighting against their suppressers is the best thing to do; the suppressers will honor them indefinitely if they fight for their lives all the way to their end. The next part starts â€Å"Though far outnumbered let us show us brave/ and for their thousand blows deal one deathblow! Wh at though before us lies the open grave? †(10-12). The speaker emphasizes the impact that fighting back against these suppressers will have. He talks about them being outnumbered, most of the time that would spark something in someone to just stop and give up. The speaker states that even if they are outnumbered, that has nothing to do with giving in. He tells them to be brave and fight until the last breath they will breath in this world. Finally, he states that â€Å"Like men we’ll face the murderous, cowardly pack† (13). He wants them to remember that this is wrong what the white man is doing to them and that fighting back is the best thing that they can do. He says, â€Å"Pressed to the wall, dying, but fighting back! † (14). That is the theme of the poem and ends the poem as he started it, â€Å"If We must die. † Claude McKay wrote â€Å"If We Must Die† to motivate blacks to fight back against the white man and not die for nothing. He believed in every human life on this planet, and thought that no one should be hunted and killed for doing no wrong. He knew that the racism would not stop for years to come, but he wanted to make an attempt to inspire African-Americans to not give up.

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

The Ethereal Plane Essays

The Ethereal Plane Essays The Ethereal Plane Paper The Ethereal Plane Paper Without Time on your side I cannot be stoped. My Daemon forces will soon pour onto the Ethereal Planes, and this fool he pointed his finger towards the semi concious Sirch who was attempting to clamber up to a standing position has sent a large majority of your Solar forces to defend the City Of Knights. You are doomed mohahahhhahahah. And with a swish of his cloak he was gone, the Dark Lord had left. His laugh still echoed through the minds of the stupidfied Ethereal beings. All but Rezarf looked to stunned to move, he helped Sirch to his feet and then spoke. Gather all the Solar and Angelic forces you can. he decreed And move with great haste to the Gates of Hell, we must fight him. Sir! Our forward scouts report the seals on the Gate have been broken, but it has yet to be opened. Good work Colonel, gather your forces and prepare to march on the Gate. We cannot let the creatures of the Nine Hells lose on the Ethereal Plane. Very Good, Rezarf my liege. And so it was.. The combined Solar and Angleic forces of the Gods of Good marched towards the Gates of Hell. Each God defending the Ethereal Planes was armoured and battle ready, for Ethereal Powers alone could not stop other immortals. Rezarf was dorned in glittering white plate mail, and held in his hand the legendary great sword Mikil; Sirch marhced alongside side him in golden mail crafted for him by Deah Neequ (the Elvish God of Craftsmen) and carried with him a long sword of Lighting; Amme was suited in light chain mail of heavy crimson and brandished two Rapiers of solid light; and the fearless Semloh (the God of Battle) lead the legions of Ethereal light adorned in his armour forged from the skin of Daemons, carrying his huge two handed battle-axe over his shoulder. Their forces numbered light, with only 200 Solar warriors and 300 Angelic fighters (as Sirch had sent 2000 Ethereal Guardsmen to the Prime Material from whence the could not be reclaimed in time). The did however know their Godly forces outnumbered those of the Dark Lords. 15 Human Gods marched alongside Rezarf, aswell as 5 Elvish, 4 Dwarfish, and 2 of the Halfling race, but they all knew only Rezarf alone could face up to the Dark Lord Iekkob. The marched forward with vigour and purpose, covering the ground very quickly. Whilst the heavenly light shined down upon them from the ever clear skies of the Ethereal Plane. Their shields, swords, and armour glinted and shimmered in the light. Their brightly coloured helms clinked, and their boots ruslted as they marched. The holy sound of the immortal troops marching to become mortal filled the canyons and hills as they passed. And as the grew ever closer to this possible doom the expressions on the faces of the Ethereal dwellers began to change, their brows grew furrowed and their eyes slender, they knew what was awaiting them was eternal nothingness if they failed. though for a lot they knew the void called for them even if they were victorious. Rezarfs expression, however, never changed; his face radiated steely deterimation and unquestionable belief, and this seemed to lift the downheartend soldiers of good. HALT ! Semloh gave a great cry and raised his hand, and the legions behind him began to stop. He moved to Rezarfs side, and they both stood deathly still. They gazed ahead for what seemed like an eternity for the forces of good, they all could sense the great evil emiting from the Gate but were not sure why they had halted so close to their journeys end. Ummm. Rezarf for once Sirch did not sound sure of himself Why have you and Semloh halted our army? Neither of the two answered him, so he joined them staring waiting. A loud hissing filled the air, the troops readyed themselves for battle. Shields were swung from backs, swords drawn from sheaths, and helms repositioned. Only Rezarf and Semloh did not move, the only apparent change was that they now seemed to b consetrating hard staring forwards with a purpose. Suddenly, very quickly, the unmistakable figure of the Dark Lord appeared. He was wearing no armour, only a robe of pure red and orange that seemed to be alight, and he carried no weapon, save for the staff of fire. He walked forward a few paces, bowed to Rezarf and Semloh, and started clapping. Bravo my dear friends. It seems there are some Stayers of the Light less gormless than your friend Sirch. I am proud of you Rezarf, you have done well to sense my concealed army. But I am afraid I must say NOW MY FIENDS KILL THE HARVANGERS OF LIGHT AND GOOD !!!!! He gave his arm a dramatic spin and pointed towards the bemused Ethereal Gods. They were looking from side to side, and some even took a shifty look behind them. Then out of no where a huge army of Daemons and other foul beasts of Hell appeared from behind Iekkob, charging forward. At the front of their lines where the Gods of Evil, and High Daemon Beast of Hell. The legions of light held their ground, drawing their swords and staying their shields. Crunch. The oncoming wave of Darkness had hit the barrier of light. The Solar, Angels, and Ethereal Beings held firm. Daemon after Daemon fell against the Solar Warriors. The Gods of Light and Evil were locked in combat, fighting to put each other into the void that awaited. Iekkob however slowly walked forwards towards Rezarf and Semloh, who stood together as Sirch had flinched at the oncoming wave and retreated to the lines of light. The occasionaly Daemon ran at Rezarf and Semloh, but with a blood curldling thud they fell as the Battle God swung his great axe. And likewise for Iekkob, though it was his glare that seemed to fell the majority of Solars and Angels approaching him. He approached the two leaders of light and spoke clearly heavenly through the choas. Come my friend Semloh, you are the God of Battle, are you afraid to face me in combat. Semloh growled a heavy growl, and bellowed as he charged towards the Dark Lord. I AM AFRAID OF NO FIEND !!!! Semloh swung his great axe as soon as he was in ranged of Iekkob. It was swung with great power, great strength, and incredible speed. For a fraction of a second it seemed to be a clean swing, looking to take the Dark Lords neck, but with timing and uncanny speed the calm, almost complacent, Iekkob raised his staff and defelected the blow. He then thurst his hand outwards and the invisible force pushed Semloh to the ground, about a metre away. He jumped to his feet, but the Dark Lord was their, and he was knocked down by a heavy blow from the staff. The Battle Gods forehead burned and blead as he lie gasping for air on the hard floor. As he looked up he saw the staff decsending towards his chest, he closed his eyes and accepted his fate. The Dark Lord smiled and withdrew his staff from the Gods chest, feeling Semlohs power draining into him. He looked at Rezarf and continued towrds him. Rezarf turned his gaze from Iekkob, and moved it across the battlefield. His eyes feel upon the figure of Yug diving in front of Amme, and taking the spear of Ydrof through the chest. Sirch was battling against Liwl valiantly his sword moving with speed to deflect the two lighting quick daggers of Liwl, but in vain as he was sliced with blood gussing accuracy by Elags from behind. Elechim had drawn her katana and buckler and was slicing through the ranks of the Daemon High Lords, only to be beheaded by a Harkul King, and lost to the void. Yadand, thanks to his great strength, was holding his own and Xela lay dead at his feet, the Drowish Gods entrails spilling along the floor as her summoned Drow Kings fought to protect her body; but even he fell to the skillful spear of Ydrof. Amme shrieked with anger and launched herself at Rehcturc, her beautiful hair billowing as she ran. The God of Orcs, and so forth, lunged without skill his great two handed sword thrusting forward. Amme deflected the thrust with her first Rapier and dislogded Rehcturc head with the second. Iemaj was quick on the action, he disimbowled a Solar Warrior, and thrust his short sword into the Ammes back her squeal covered the battlefield curdling the blood of the Ethereal Troops. Rezarf turned his gaze back towards Iekkob, who had stopped only 2 metres away from him waiting for his attention. Do you see now Rezarf, your cause is noble but pointless. My hordes of Daemons are slaughtering your Ethereal forces. The Gods who fought beside you are fallen deities. Where as my allies are strong, enhanced by the inheritance of the powers of your Gods of Good. I see nothing you wish me to Iekkob, you are evil. That is all I wish to know. And understand me good shall outlive evil. Look around you, my friend. Your army is all but routed and once your powers are mine I shall rule supreme on the Ethereal Plane. No. you wont. I shall stop you Iekkob, your were once my friend and for that reason I am truly sorry. Rezarf sighed heavily and thurst his hand forward, attempting use the unearthly force to throw Iekkob down. But he did not move, the Dark Lord simply laughed. You should know better Rezarf ! Neither of us can use our Godly powers this shall be a mortal fight. And with those words he leaped the remaining distance between them. Rezarfs sword flashed upwards, thrusting towards the Dark Lords chest, but was swiped away by the staff of fire. The had engage in a battle, where upon one would become supreme and the other would enter the void to be forgotten. You shall not be victorious Iekkob ! Rezarf shouted as he fought, warnings of his un-utterable belief in the power of good bellowed from him. The light shall prevail over the darkness. The glorious sword glinted and shone as its Ethereal owner used it to perfection. It hummed in the air, slash after thrust, after stab. Each was timing and speed to perfection. But the Dark Lords staff deflected every blow, with a sudden blaze of fire and embers as the two weapons smashed against each other. The Dark Lord fought his equal opposite, as did Mikil (the sword of Heavenly Light) as it was pitted against the staff of Hells Fury. Each as evil and righteous as their owner, the weapons blazed with their owners hatred for each other. The two most powerful immortals on the Ethereal Plane fought and fought, even as the battle drew to a close. Daemon forces were hunting and slaughtering the last of the Solar warriors and Angelic Fighters. Good and light shone only from its last carrier, Rezarf. He fought valiantly, though the Dark Lord fought supremely. Rezarf slashed downwards at the Dark Lords chest, but the staff caught the blow and deflected the sword. With speed yet unseen in the battle, Iekkob swung the staff of evil around and thrust hard. Rezarf fell to the floor, gasping for air, blood pouring from the open wound in his chest where the blow had landed. Mikil slipping from his grasp had fallen away. I have won my old friend. Goodbye. You have beaten me but you have not won Iekkob. I have seen your path and you shall lead the way to the void before me. The Dark Lord raised his staff and plunged it downwards, towards the Ethereal heart of Rezarf.   The shout echoed around the battlefield, Daemons cringed, Solars weapt, and the whole Plane shook with the sound of death. Storms crashed through the mortal Planes, as the powers gathered by this one of the most powerful immortals transended into a new host. The Dark Lord looked down, and through his chest stuck Mikil thrust from behind. The sword of Light radiated as the blood of evil itself ran down its glimmering blade. It was withdrawn and its wielder watched as the lifeless body of the Dark Lord fell to the ground, blood gushing from the weeping wound in his chest. His entrails slithered along the beaten grass and his eyes stared in fear as the void engulfed him. Thank You gasped Rezarf Light has prevailed because of youuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu !!!!!! Rezarfs head rolled away across the battlefield, severed from his body, by the sword of Good. His corpe twitched as his Godly essence raced from it and into its knew host, and then it lay still dead. Rezarfs head had come to rest on the body of the Dark Lord, his eyes looking eeriely into the Iekkobs, his mouth parted into a smile his profecy had become truth. Hahahahahahah A Dark laugh filled the battlefield. Its owner stood proud and tall above the fallen bodies of the two most powerful Gods. As the dust cleared the Daemon forces turned their watchful gaze, and saw the figure of a Drowish King his enormous weapon held in front of him. The Daemons, Gods of Evil, and remaining Ethereal troops bowed and chanted.